About this site

This resource is hosted by the Nelson Mandela Centre of Memory, but was compiled and authored by Padraig O’Malley. It is the product of almost two decades of research and includes analyses, chronologies, historical documents, and interviews from the apartheid and post-apartheid eras.

Articles and books

(References to the Survey are to the South Africa Survey, formerly the Race Relations Survey and the Survey of Race Relations in South Africa, published by the South African Institute of Race Relations, Johannesburg)

Ad Hoc Crisis Committee, 'The crisis in Vulindlela and the Edendale Valley: 2531 March 1990'

'Affidavits: What they mean in South African law', Clarion Call, 1988/89 Special Edition

Africa South of the Sahara 198485, Fourteenth Edition, Europa Publications Ltd, London, 1984

African National Congress (ANC), 'Forward to Freedom: Strategy, tactics and programme of the African National Congress, South Africa', adopted at the Morogoro Conference, Tanzania, 1969

Aitchison J, 'Deaths from Political Violence in the Natal Midlands 19801992', Centre for Adult Education, University of Natal (Pietermaritzburg), 1993

Aitchison J J W, Numbering the dead: the course and pattern of political violence in the Natal Midlands: 19871989, unpublished thesis submitted for the degree of Master of Arts, Department of Political Studies, University of Natal (Pietermaritzburg), 1993

'All Quiet on the Radical Front as Inkatha Members Hacked to Death', Clarion Call, October/November 1984

'Archbishop Desmond Tutu-Do his views represent those of the majority of Anglicans?', Clarion Call, vol 3, 1986

Bekker S and Louw A, 'Capturing the Event - Conflict Trends in the Natal Region 19861992', Indicator SA Issue Focus, Centre for Social and Development Studies, Durban, 1992

Bhagowat C, 'After the Peace Accord: Conflict continues in KwaMakhutha', Work in Progress, no 73, March/April 1991

'Black Opinion', SA Report, 6 November 1987

Branford J, A Dictionary of South African English, Oxford University Press, Cape Town, 1978

Buthelezi M G, 'Address and presentation of his majesty the king of the Zulus to the people,' Stanger, 21 September 1991

Buthelezi M G, 'Affidavit', Clarion Call, 1989

Buthelezi M, 'Agreements between the state president and Dr Mandela', press statement released at Ulundi, 27 September 1992

Buthelezi M G, 'Aide-Memoire for Dr Mangosuthu Buthelezi for discussions with the state president, Mr F W de Klerk, and other members of the South African Government,' Cape Town, 16 September 1993

Buthelezi M, 'An Introduction to His Majesty the King of the Zulus and a Message to the People', Durban, 14 February 1994

Buthelezi M, 'Leadership and Democracy for the Women of South Africa: The challenges of structuring the road ahead', address to the 19th annual general conference of the Inkatha Women's Brigade, Emandleni Matleng, 26 October 1996

Buthelezi M G, 'Memorandum for discussion with Sir George Gardiner, MP from the United Kingdom, accompanied by Mr Andrew Hunter', Ulundi, 1 August 1991

Buthelezi M G, 'Policy speech addressed to the fourth session of the fifth KwaZulu Legislative Assembly', Ulundi, March 1992

Buthelezi M G, 'Statement by the Chief Minister' addressed to the KwaZulu Legislative Assembly during a snap debate on violence and intimidation and the ANC's withdrawal from Codesa and its mass action programmes, Ulundi, 30 June 1992

Buthelezi M G, 'To My American Friends', address to an international session of the National Urban League, Los Angeles, 7 August 1978, in Buthelezi M G, Power is Ours, Books in Focus Inc, New York, 1979

Buthelezi M G, 'What Foreigners Must Know', address to the Time magazine news tour, Johannesburg, 20 March 1978, in Buthelezi M G, Power is Ours, Books in Focus Inc, New York, 1979

Buthelezi M G, 'Why I established Inkatha', Clarion Call, 1987 Special Edition

Centre for Information Analysis, South Africa: An inter-regional profile, Development Bank of Southern Africa, Midrand, 1991

'Church Appeal for Inkatha and UDF to talk', Clarion Call, October/November 1984

'Codesa impasse inevitable on not one, but two crucial issues', South African Update, vol 4 no 4, May 1992

Consolidated Terms of Reference for International Mediation Agreed Upon by the ANC and IFP, 10 April 1994

Cronin J, 'For the Sake of Our Lives! Guidelines for the creation of people's self-defence units', Project for the Study of Violence: Seminar Paper No 2, University of the Wiwatersrand, Johannesburg, 1991

Cunningham-Brown N, 'The Natal violence continues', South Africa Foundation Review, February 1990

'Current Affairs', South African Report, 9 May 1991

De Kock W, Usuthu! Cry Peace! The Black Liberation Movement Inkatha and the Fight for a Just South Africa, The Gallery Press (Pty) Ltd, Cape Town, 1986

Deloitte Pim Goldby Management Consultants, report commissioned by the Department of Economic Affairs, KwaZulu Government, 'Government Expenditure in Natal KwaZulu (Region E): A regional comparison', December 1991

Desai A and Van Holdt K, 'Natal Violence: New Conditions, New Strategies' in South African Labour Bulletin, vol 15 no 4, November 1990

'Draft report on the KwaZulu/Natal local government election', prepared for the Deparment of Local Government and Housing, Pietermaritzburg, October 1996

Dugard J, Human Rights and the South African Legal Order, Princeton University Press, New Jersey and Surrey, 1978

'Effects of the violence on township residents', South Africa Foundation Review, Noveber 1990

Ellis S and Sechaba T, Comrades against Apartheid, the ANC and the South African Comunist Party in Exile, Indiana University Press, Bloomington and Indiana, and James Currey, London, 1992

Erasmus J, South Africa's Nine Provinces: A human development profile, Development Bank of Southern Africa, Development Information Paper, 1994

'First Inkatha and ANC peace accord holds hope for national reconciliation', South African Update, vol 2 no 13, 130 September 1990

Forsyth P, 'Pietermaritzburg Conflict Chronology: A Chronology of Political Develoments in Pietermaritzburg, 19801986', produced by the Project on Contemporary Conflict in Natal, Department of Historical Studies, University of Natal (Pietemaritzburg), April 1991

'Gatsha Buthelezi Thunders', Sechaba, February 1984

Gerhart G M and Karis T, 'Political Profiles 18821964', in Karis T and Carter GM (eds) From Protest to Challenge, A Documentary History of African Politics in South Africa 18821964, vol 4, Hoover Institute Press, Stanford University, Stanford, California, 1977

Harber A and Ludman B (eds), Weekly Mail and Guardian AZ of South African Politics, The Essential Handbook-1994, The Penguin Group, England, 1994

Hobbes T, Leviathan, Part i, Ch 13

Hodgson K, 'The Role of Umkhonto we Sizwe in Violence', in Inkatha Freedom Party, Submissions to the Goldstone Commission at the Preliminary Hearing into Violence in Natal/KwaZulu, Durban, 30th November4th December 1992, 1992

Horrell M, Laws Affecting Race Relations in South Africa (To the end of 1976), South African Institute of Race Relations (SAIRR), Johannesburg, 1978

Hudson J, 'Violence in the Pretoria/Witwatersrand/Vereeniging Area 19901992: A Diary of Events,' SAIRR, Johannesburg, 1993

Human Rights Commission, Checkmate for Apartheid? A special report on two years of destabilisation, July 1990 to June 1992, Special Report SR-12, Johannesburg, 1992

Human Rights Commission, Three Years of Destabilisation: A Record of Political Violence in South Africa from July 1990 to June 1993, Special Report SR-13, Johannesburg, 1993

'IFP Submission to Goldstone commission, Pietermaritzburg's Imbali', South African Update, vol 4 no 4, May 1992

Inkatha Freedom Party, 'Amendment to Local Government Transition Act Sees Further Erosion of the Power of the Chiefs', IFP Information Centre, 1995

Inkatha Freedom Party, 'Comments on the Third Interim Report of the Goldstone Comission', 2 January 1993

Inkatha Freedom Party, 'Difficulties with the Commission of Inquiry into the Prevention of Public Violence and Intimidation', 8 April 1994

'Inkatha Freedom Party-List of Office Bearers killed, as of 1985 to 14 September 1991', in Inkatha Freedom Party, 'Report on Violence', 1992

Inkatha Freedom Party, 'The Role of Chieftainship in African Public Administration', addendum to Ngubane B, 'Statement on Behalf of the KwaZulu Government to the Commission of Inquiry Regarding Public Violence and Intimidation', December 1992

Inkatha Women's Brigade, Resolution adopted by the annual general conference of the Inkatha Women's Brigade, Ulundi, 1415 October 1989

'Is there a place for pragmatism?', Clarion Call, 1987, Special Edition

Jeffery A J, Conflict at the crossroads in Bophuthatswana, SAIRR, Johannesburg, 1993

Johnson R W, 'Understanding the Elections', in KwaZulu-Natal Briefing, no 3, Helen Suzman Foundation, August 1996

Kane-Berman J, 'Inkatha: The Paradox of South African Politics', Optima, vol 30 no 3, 1982

Kane-Berman J, Political Violence in South Africa, SAIRR, Johannesburg, 1993

Kane-Berman J, Soweto: Black Revolt, White Reaction, Ravan Press, Johannesburg, 1978

Karis T and Gerhart G M, 'Challenge and Violence 19531964', in Karis T and Carter GM, From Protest to Challenge: A documentary history of African politics in South Africa 18821964, vol 3, Hoover Institution Press, Stanford University, Stanford, California, 1977

Kentridge M, An Unofficial War, Inside the Conflict in Pietermaritzburg, David Philip, Cape Town, 1990

Keys R, 'Mpophomeni: The ANC's Dilemma', in Minnaar A, Patterns of Violence: Case Studies of Conflict in Natal, Human Sciences Research Council, Pretoria, 1992

Kotze H and Greyling A, Political Organisations in South Africa-AZ, Tafelberg Publishers Ltd, Cape Town, 1991

'KwaZulu and Incorporation', Clarion Call, October/November 1984

'KwaZulu-Natal's new constitution: no losersany winners?' in KwaZulu-Natal Briefing, Helen Suzman Foundation, no 1, March 1996

'Lamontville-and what is really going on in the township', Clarion Call, October/ November 1984

Ligthelm A A, Martins J H, and Van Wyk H de J, Bureau of Market Research, South Africa's Nine Provinces: A Socio-Economic Profile, 1995, University of South Africa, Pretoria, Research Report no 221, 1995

Lodge T, Black Politics in South Africa Since 1945, Ravan Press, Johannesburg, 1983

Louw R, 'Ciskei set to become "next site of struggle" as ANC moves to weaken De Klerk's negotiating partners', Southern Africa Report, vol 10 no 32, 14 August 1992

Malan R, My Traitor's Heart, Blood and Bad Dreams: A South African Explores the Madness in his Country, his Tribe and Himself, Vintage, London, 1990

Manby B, 'South Africa, Threats to a New Democracy: Continuing Violence in KwaZulNatal', Human Rights Watch/Africa, vol 7 no 3, May 1995

Mandela N R, 'Statement of the president of the African National Congress, Nelson R Mandela, at the United Nations Security Council', New York, 15 July 1992

Mandela N, The struggle is my life, IDAF Publications Limited, London, 1990

Mansfield P, Powerhouse or Poorhouse, A Study of Black Urbanisation in the Durban Functional Region 19842000, Urban Foundation, 1985

Maré G and Hamilton G, An Appetite for Power: Buthelezi's Inkatha and the politics of 'loyal resistance', Ravan Press, Johannesburg, 1987

Mariño E, KwaZulu-Natal Emergency, The 1994 Emergency in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa: Statements and Observations from the International Observer to the Emergency, Durban-Johannesburg, AprilJuly 1994

Mazwai et al, Mau-Mauing the Media: New Censorship for the New South Africa, SAIRR, Johannesburg, 1991

Mdlalose F T, 'Opening Statement to the Negotiating Council', World Trade Centre, Johannesburg, 26 April 1993

Mfayela S, 'A Perspective on the Natal Violence', in Inkatha Freedom Party, Submissions to the Goldstone Commission at the Preliminary Hearing into Violence in Natal/KwZulu, Durban, 30th November4th December 1992, 1992

Minnaar A, '"Undisputed kings": Warlordism in Natal', in Minnaar A, Patterns of Violence: Case Studies of Conflict in Natal, Human Sciences Research Council, Pretoria, 1992

Mzala, Gatsha Buthelezi: Chief with a Double Agenda, Zed Books, London, 1988

Ngubane B, 'Statement on Behalf of the KwaZulu Government to the Commission of Inquiry Regarding Public Violence and Intimidation', December 1992

'Nicaragua: Introductory Survey', in Europa World Yearbook, Europa Publications Ltd, London, 1994

Nkosi Z, 'The Lessons of Soweto', The African Communist, no 68, First Quarter, 1977

Ntsele W, 'ANC Political Intolerance', in Inkatha Freedom Party, Submissions to the Goldstone Commission at the Preliminary Hearing into Violence in Natal/KwaZulu, Durban, 30th November4th December 1992, 1992

Osborn H, 'The Richmond War: "A Struggle for Supremacy"', in Minnaar A, Patterns of Violence: Case Studies of Conflict in Natal, Human Sciences Research Council, Pretoria, 1992

'Participation and Non-Participation: Dr Mangosuthu Buthelezi's role in KwaZulu', Clarion Call, vol 3, 1987

Powell P, 'Perspectives on the Role of Armed Struggle: Its relevance in the transitional period and the post apartheid era, Must we Inherit a Wasteland?', Community Development Foundation Seminar, 1 July 1993

Powell P, 'The Drive for Political Hegemony', in Inkatha Freedom Party, Submissions to the Goldstone Commission at the Preliminary Hearing into Violence in Natal/KwaZulu, Durban, 30th November4th December 1992, 1992

Powell P, 'Violence case study: Bruntville', South African Update, vol 4 no 3, April 1992

'Preliminary Report of the Transitional Executive Council Investigation Task Group into the matter of hit squads in the KwaZulu Police, flowing from the Fourth Interim Report of the Goldstone Commission, dated 6 December 1993', Pretoria, 22 March 1994

Ramaphosa M C, 'Closing address to the ANC National Policy Conference', Johanneburg, 2831 May 1992

Reed D, Beloved Country, South Africa's Silent Wars, Jonathan Ball Publishers, Johanneburg, 1994

'Rift widens between traditional chiefs, ANC' in Southern Africa Report, 12 July 1996

Roberts A, 'The Killing Streets', The Spectator, 18 January 1992

Sabelo M, 'Assassination of IFP Leaders', in Inkatha Freedom Party, Submissions to the Goldstone Commission at the Preliminary Hearing into Violence in Natal/KwaZulu, Durban, 30th November4th December 1992, 1992

'Sactu on Inkatha: no negotiations, no compromise, neturalise Buthelezi', South African Update, vol 1 no 6, 1 October14 October 1989

Shepherd Smith J, Buthelezi, The Biography, Hans Strydom Publishers, 1988

Sibeko A, 'The Underground Voice', The African Communist, no 68, First Quarter, 1977

Smith P, 'Violence Monitoring: Cautionary Comments', in Inkatha Freedom Party, Submissions to the Goldstone Commission at the Preliminary Hearing into Violence in Natal/KwaZulu, Durban, 30th November4th December 1992, 1992

South Africa News Information Service, Information Bulletin no 11, 17 March 1994

South African Communist Party, 'The KwaZulu-Natal Alternative is a Dead-End', The African Communist, no 109, Second Quarter, 1987

South African Institute of Race Relations, 'Durban: Diary of Destruction', Race Relations News, September 1985

South African Police 'Memorandum submitted on behalf of the South African Police before the Goldstone Commission sitting at Durban during the week 30 November 1992 to 4 December 1992', 1992

Special Commission on Negotiations, 'Transition to Democracy,' Report of the Special Commission on Negotiations to Plenary at the ANC National Policy Conference, 2831 May 1992

Stuart O O J, Pellissier G M and Burger M P, BER University of Stellenbosch Trends, vol15 no 4, December 1992, Bureau for Economic Research, Stellenbosch

'Supplementary Report of the Transitional Executive Council Investigation Task Group into the Matter of Hit Squads in the KwaZulu Police', 18 May 1994

Temkin B, Gatsha Buthelezi, Zulu Statesman, Purnell and Sons (Pty) Ltd, Cape Town, 1976

'The ANC, UDF and Inkatha: Background-Inkatha and the ANC', Clarion Call, vol 3, 1987

'The Renewed Emergency', Indicator SA, vol 5 no 2, Summer 1988

The World Alliance and Book of Facts, Pharos Books, New York, 1993

Tillet E, 'The New Phase of Low Intensity Warfare in Natal', Inkatha Freedom Party, Submissions to the Goldstone Commission at the Preliminary Hearing into Violence in Natal/KwaZulu, Durban, 30th November4th December 1992, 1992

'Unity and Organisation Mean Victory, Resolution on the current situation adopted by the Political Bureau of the South African Communist Party-September 1980', The African Communist, no 84, First Quarter, 1981

'Violence breaks out immediately after the 29 January accord', South African Update, vol 3 no 2, February 1991

'We Must Break with False Leaders', Mayibuye, no 5, 1984

'What is behind the name-calling?', Clarion Call, 1987, Special Edition

'What Liberation Will Bring to Us', Clarion Call, October/November 1984

Woods G, 'An illustrated model of the causes of violence', unpublished paper, 1992

Woods G, 'An Inkatha account of the violence connected to the NECC conference held in Congella, Durban, in March 1986', unpublished paper, 21 April 1995

Woods G, 'An Inkatha viewpoint', South Africa Foundation Review, August/September 1993

Woods G, 'Inkatha Report on the Violence in Natal', Inkatha Institute, Durban, 1990

Zwelithini G, 'A Claim for the Sovereignty of the Zulu Kingdom', Durban, 14 February 1994

Zwelithini G, 'Memorandum for Presentation to the State President, The Hon F W De Klerk', Durban, 14 February 1994

This resource is hosted by the Nelson Mandela Centre of Memory, but was compiled and authored by Padraig O’Malley. Return to the Nelson Mandela Centre of Memory site.