About this site

This resource is hosted by the Nelson Mandela Centre of Memory, but was compiled and authored by Padraig O’Malley. It is the product of almost two decades of research and includes analyses, chronologies, historical documents, and interviews from the apartheid and post-apartheid eras.

1985

State of Emergency declared

SADF raid Lesotho once again. Leads to fall of the Lesotho Prime Minister, Jonathan Lebua

COSATU (Congress of South African Trade Unions) formed

ANC Consultative Conference held in Zambia

MK bomb attack in Amanzimtoti.

Mathew Goniwe, Fort Calata, Sparrow Mkhonto and Sicelo Mhlawuli, (known as the 'Cradock Four') active members of the Cradock Residents Association (CRA) and of the United Democratic Front (UDF) are found murdered and their bodies mutilated near Port Elizabeth at the end of June. Goniwe is well-known and popular. A former Robben Island prisoner, Acting Headmaster and Chair of the CRA he was hounded by the police. Evidence at his inquest showed that General CP van der Westhuizen, a Military Chief of Staff had signed the death warrant of the four men.

This resource is hosted by the Nelson Mandela Centre of Memory, but was compiled and authored by Padraig O’Malley. Return to the Nelson Mandela Centre of Memory site.