About this site

This resource is hosted by the Nelson Mandela Centre of Memory, but was compiled and authored by Padraig O’Malley. It is the product of almost two decades of research and includes analyses, chronologies, historical documents, and interviews from the apartheid and post-apartheid eras.

1994

The ANC-led government proceeds to implement the Reconstruction and Development Programme (RDP), adopted in as the basic policy framework guiding the transformation of the country.

National Strategic Intelligence Act No 39:

Defined the functions of members of the National Intelligence Structures and established a National Intelligence Co-ordinating Committee. It repealed the 1972 Security Intelligence and State Security Council Act.

Commenced: 1 January 1995

IN FORCE: DEFENCE.

Thandi Modise becomes a member of the ANC Women's Executive Committee and holds post of Deputy-President until 1997.

Dorothy Nyembe elected to National Assembly.

Ruth Mompati elected to National Assembly

Patricia De Lille elected to National Assembly.

Gill Marcus elected to parliament becomes chairperson of parliamentary joint Finance Committee.

Winnie Mandela appointed deputy minister of Arts, Culture, Science and Technology.

Sister Bernard Ncube elected Member of Parliament, chairs committee on Arts, Culture, Science and Technology. Sister Ncube is known for her unorthodox views. She argued for abortion during her participation in the debate on the Abortion Bill.

Patricia De Lille be becomes chairperson of Transport Committee in parliament and Chief whip for the PAC.

January 1994

Moves are made to deploy the 10,000 strong National Peacekeeping Force.

10 January 1994

The Secretary-General submitted a report to the Security Council with recommendations for the observation of elections in South Africa.

16 January 1994

The Pan-Africanist Congress suspends its armed struggle and its guerrillas disarm.

16 January 1994

PAC announced suspension of armed struggle

28 January 1994

South Africa:Signs joint communiqué concerning the development of bilateral relations with Jordan.

1 February 1994

President de Klerk announced the withdrawal of the Internal Stability Units (ISU) from the East Rand townships of Kathlehong and Thokoza and their replacement by the South African Defence Force (SADF). Township residents had been for long suspected that the ISU was implicated in instigating violence in the Natal and East Rand area, which has been responsible for 90 per cent of deaths related to political violence.

2 February 1994

President de Klerk announced that South Africa's first non-racial democratic elections would be held on 26-28 April.

6 February 1994

National Peacekeeping Force (NPKF) Brigadier Gabriel Ramushwana said that the NPKF would probably not be ready to keep the peace during the elections in April.

12 February 1994

Nineteen political parties have registered for the forthcoming April 1994 general election.

12 February 1994

Nineteen political parties registered to participate in the first democratic elections in South Africa.

14 February 1994

South Africa:Signs agreement with the Republic of China concerning the avoidance of double taxation and the prevention of fiscal evasion with respect to taxes on income.

14 February 1994

The Security Council unanimously approved the recommendations of the Secretary-General.

14 February 1994

At a meeting in Durban City hall Zulu King Goodwill Zwelithini told President de Klerk that he was prepared to set up a Zulu Kingdom. In a memorandum he presented to President de Klerk, the King rejected South Africa's interim constitution.

16 February 1994

Nelson Mandela announces six constitutional concessions to defuse black and white threats of conflict. Amongst them are a change from a single to a double-ballot system and provision for each province to determine its form of government.

16 February 1994

Nelson Mandela announced constitutional concessions which would strengthen the power of provinces under the country's post-apartheid constitution, including the power of taxation and a constitutional principle of "self-determination".

17 February 1994

South Africa:Signs agreement with Namibia relating to defence and civil aviation in Walvis Bay

Signs bilateral air services agreement with the government of Luxembourg.

17 February 1994

The IEC had hired 10,300 observers to monitor the first democratic election in April.

18 February 1994

South Africa:Signs bilateral air transport agreement with the government of Morocco.

21 February 1994

The ANC and the South African government (SAG) made further concessions in an attempt to draw the FA into an inclusive constitutional settlement. The multiparty Negotiating Council agreed that provincial legislatures would in certain circumstances be competent to draw up laws for provinces. The council also agreed to postpone the registration deadline to 4 March.

22 February 1994

South africa:Signs agreement with the government of Namibia on co-operation in the policing of Walvis Bay.

25 February - 27 February 1994

The Women's National Coalition called a conference where the Women's Charter was adopted.

25 February 1994

Signs agreement with the government of Namibia relating to the promotion of co-operation in the field of administration of justice.

South Africa opens an embassy in Mbabane, Swaziland.

27 February 1994

South Africa:Signs agreement with the government of Namibia with respect to road transport and road traffic matters relating to Walvis Bay.

28 February 1994

South Africa:Signs treaty with the government of Namibia regarding Walvis Bay and the off-shore islands.

March 1994

Several of South Africa's homelands' are on the verge of collapse. These include Venda, Ciskei and Lebowa.

Moves are made again to activate the forty mile electrified fence between South Africa and Mozambique to deter the flood of weapons entering South Africa from that country. This was switched off in 1990.

An outline of proposed amendments to the constitution is published.

National Party and ANC Party manifestos are made available,

The Goldstone Commission of Inquiry releases report suggesting that top police officers masterminded 'third force' activities aimed at destabilizing the country ahead of the forthcoming April general election.

1 March 1994

South Africa:Signs agreement with Namibia concerning the multilateral Motor Vehicle Accidents Fund of South Africa and Namibia relating to Third Party compensation matters in view of the incorporation/reintegration of Walvis Bay into Namibia.

Signs agreement with the government of Namibia concerning hospital and health services in Walvis Bay.

Signs agreement with the government of Namibia with respect to prisons matters in Walvis Bay.

Signs agreement with the government of Namibia in respect to health and welfare services in Walvis Bay.

Signs agreement with the government of Namibia regarding schools and adult education in Walvis Bay.

Signs agreement with the government of Namibia concerning sea fisheries functions in Walvis Bay.

Signs agreement with the government of Namibia with a view to regulating certain taxation matters with regard to South African taxes and duties and Namibian taxes in Walvis Bay.

Signs agreement with the government of Namibia concerning nature conservation functions in Walvis Bay.

Three days before the 4 March deadline for registering parties, Chief

Buthe]ezi announces that he is considering registering his lnkatha Freedom Party for the forthcoming April general election.

2 March 1994

South Africa:Signs agreement with Zimbabwe establishing a Joint Commission for Economic, Technical, Scientific and Cultural Co-operation.

4 March 1994

General Constand Viljoen registers a new party, the Freedom Front, for the forthcoming April election.

Signs agreement with the government of Namibia with respect to mineral and energy matters relating to Walvis Bay.

Convention between the Republics of South Africa and Hungary for the Avoidance of Double Taxation with respect to Taxes on Income.

7 March 1994

General Constand Viljoen, co-leader of the Afrikaner Volksfront (AVF), registered a new party, the Freedom Front (FF) for the elections. The Bophuthatswana Cabinet, for its part, continued to oppose registration.

7 March 1994

Dispute Resolution, Peace Structure and Support Administrative Forums No 1:

Provided mechanisms for dispute resolution.

Commenced: 7 March 1994

8 March 1994

South Africa:Signs agreement for air services with Japan.

9 March 1994

Widespread revolt gripped Bophuthatswana as demonstrators which demanded the reincorporation of the nominally independent homeland into South Africa clashed with police force. The ANC said that at least 32 people were injured by gunfire in skirmishes with security forces.

11 March 1994

South African troops in armoured vehicles rolled into the capital of Mmabatho after some 50 people were killed and hundreds were injured during violent clashes in the homeland.

12 March 1994

Chief Lucas Mangope is deposed as leader of Bophuthatswana by the South African army. Dr. Tjaart van der Walt is appointed as the territory's new administrator.

14 March 1994

TEC management committee decided on new administration of Bophuthatswana after widespread revolt.

15 March 1994

Nelson Mandela received a tumultuous welcome in Bophuthatswana after the overthrow of homeland leader Lucas Mangope.

17 March 1994

South Africa:Signs agreement with the government of Namibia relating to local government matters in Walvis Bay.

19 March 1994

South Africa:Signs agreement with the government of Mauritius for the avoidance of double taxation and the prevention of fiscal evasion with respect to taxes on income.

22 March 1994

In the homeland of Ciskei, a mutiny by police and defence forces led to the resignation of Brigadier Oupa Gqozo. The TEC immediately sent representatives to take over control of the homeland, and posted troops at its borders.

28 March 1994

Violent clashes occur between Zulu IFP supporters protesting against the forthcoming April general election and the ANC's security guards protesting the ANC headquarters Shell House.

31 March 1994

President de Klerk declared a state of emergency in Natal, in the hope of quelling the violence and ensuring a fair election there in April.

April 1994

The negotiations initiated by the ANC resulted in the holding of historic first elections based on one-person-one vote. The ANC won these first historic elections with a vast majority. 62,6% of the more than 22 million votes cast was in favour of the ANC.

South African Parliament adopted the Constitution for the Transition Period, to come into force on 27.

12 April 1994

South Africa:Signs joint communiqué with Colombia on the establishment of diplomatic relations.

19 April 1994

Kenyan Professor Washington J. Okumu persuades Chief Buthelezi to participate in the forthcoming general election.

19 April 1994

Inkatha Freedom Party agreed - following talks between President de Klerk, Nelson Mandela and Mangosuthu Buthelezi - to participate in the elections. Zulu King Goodwill Zwelithini called on his subjects to take part in the election.

21 April 1994

Two days after the Inkatha Freedom Party agreed to participate in South Africa's first non-racial elections, security officials and independent monitoring groups reported that political violence had dropped dramatically in the country.

22 April 1994

South Africa:Signs agreement with the government of Namibia concerning broadcasting services to Walvis Bay.

23 April 1994

An 'Accord on Afrikaner self-determination' is signed.

23 April 1994

The government, the ANC and the Freedom Front signed an agreement establishing a framework for a separate state for whites. The AWB rejected the agreement.

24 April 1994

A car bomb exploded in downtown Johannesburg killing at least nine people and leaving ninety-two injured. The bomb, which left a waist-deep crater in the street had been placed in a car parked mid-way between the national and regional headquarters of the African National Congress.

25 April 1994

The Japanese Government donated US$4 million to the United Nations Observer Mission in South Africa (UNOMSA), through the Trust Fund in Support of United Nations Peace-making and Peace- keeping activities.

26 April 1994

South Africa:Signs agreement with the government of Namibia regarding payment from 1 March 1994 of benefits in terms of the Unemployment Insurance Act. 1966 (Act 30 of 1966) to Walvis Bay contributors.

South Africa:Signs agreement with Namibia concerning the carriage of goods by road.

1994

26 April - 29 April

South Africa holds its first democratic general election. The African National Congress wins 62.65% of the vote. The National Party 20.39%, Inkatha Freedom Party 10.54%, Freedom Front 2.2%, Democratic Party 1.7%, Pan Africanist Congress 1.2%, African Christian Democratic Party 0.5%. Nineteen political parties participated in the election and 22 million voted.

26 April 1994

(Consequential, Transitional and Temporary Provisions) Constitution Further legislation making transition possible.

Commenced: 26 April 1994

27 April 1994

South Africa's interim constitution entered into force and the new flag was raised.

United Nations Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali congratulated South Africa on the occasion of the country's first democratic elections. He expressed his pleasure at the conduct of the voting, in particular the performance of the voters, the IEC and the UNOMSA.

South Africa's new six colour flag was unfurled for the first time at the United Nations Headquarters.

27 April 1994

South Africa's interim constitution entered into force and the new flag was raised.

United Nations Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali congratulated South Africa on the occasion of the country's first democratic elections. He expressed his pleasure at the conduct of the voting, in particular the performance of the voters, the IEC and the UNOMSA.

South Africa's new six colour flag was unfurled for the first time at the United Nations Headquarters.

27 April - 29 April 1994

General Elections in South Africa.

28 April 1994

Following numerous complaints about poor arrangements at some polling stations, President de Klerk approved a recommendation by the IEC to extend by one day polling in areas plagued by voting problems. These included KwaZulu, Venda, Gazankulu, Lebowa, Transkei and Ciskei.

29 April 1994

South Africa:Signs joint communiqué establishing diplomatic relations with Carneroon.

South Africa:Signs agreement upgrading existing diplomatic relations with Zimbabwe.

May 1994

Great Britain offers 530 million Pounds Sterling in aid to South Africa over the next three years, targetted towards the RDP.

Signs agreement upgrading existing diplomatic relations with Tunisia.

US President Clinton announces an aid package of some R2 billion to develop the South African economy over the next three years.

The ANC publishes its Reconstruction and Development Programme.

The ANC proposes that Self-Defence Unit members between thirteen and eighteen be given catch-up schooling.

3 May 1994

South Africa resumed its full membership of the World Health Organisation (WHO).

3 May 1994

South Africa resumed its full membership of the World Health Organisation (WHO).

4 May 1994

Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movement of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal.

4 May 1994

In a statement congratulating ANC President Nelson Mandela on his election victory, the United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) invited South Africa to rejoin the organisation.

4 May 1994

In a statement congratulating ANC President Nelson Mandela on his election victory, the United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) invited South Africa to rejoin the organisation. it also said it would open offices in Pretoria and that its Director-General Mr. Federico Mayor would visit South Africa when it rejoined.

5 May 1994

United States President Bill Clinton announced the doubling of $600 million United States assistance to South Africa over the next three years. He coupled his pledge with an appeal to the world's six other largest industrial countries - Britain, Canada, France, Germany, Italy and Japan - to expand assistance to South Africa in addition to assistance from the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund.

6 May 1994

South Africa:Signs agreement establishing diplomatic relations with Ghana.

Signs agreement establishing diplomatic relations with Mali.

Signs agreement establishing diplomatic relations with Senegal.

6 May 1994

Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali applauded the election process in South Africa as a peaceful expression of the people's aspiration to a better future. Noting the more than 40 years of United Nations involvement in the world campaign against apartheid, he congratulated all those who worked for the peaceful transition from apartheid to a new, democratic, non-racial and united South Africa. He pledged continued United Nations commitment to South Africa.

6 May 1994

Announcing the final results of the election, the Chairman of the IEC, Judge Johan Kriegler said that the April 26-29 elections were substantially free and fair. Admitting that the election was flawed but that this was peripheral, he said "we were able to establish the will of the people with reasonable accuracy". The final results, (in percentage points), of the three major parties were as follows:

ANC 62.6

National Party (NP) 20.4

IFP 10.5

The Democratic Party (DP), the Freedom Front (FF) and the Pan Africanist Congress of Azania (PAC) each received less than 3 per cent of the vote while the remaining parties got less than 0.2 per cent. In terms of the Interim Constitution, the distribution of seats in the 400-member National Assembly is as follows:

ANC 252

NP 82

IFP 43

FF 9

DP 7

PAC 5

African Christian Democratic Party 2

The ANC won 7 of the 9 provinces, losing the Western Cape to the NP and KwaZulu/Natal to the IFP.

The United Nations Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali applauded the election process in South Africa as a peaceful expression of the people's aspiration to a better future. Noting the more than 40 years of United Nations involvement in the world campaign against apartheid, he congratulated all those who worked for the peaceful transition from apartheid to a new, democratic, non-racial and united South Africa. He pledged continued United Nations commitment to South Africa.

10 May 1994

Nelson Mandela is inaugurated as the President of South Africa.

Signs agreement concerning the establishment of diplomatic relations with Sao Tome & Principe.

Signs bilateral agreement upgrading existing diplomatic relations with Algeria.

Signs agreement upgrading diplomatic relations with Iran.

Signs agreement upgrading diplomatic relations with Morocco.

Signs agreement upgrading diplomatic relations with Namibia.

Signs agreement establishing diplomatic relations with Qatar.

Signs agreement establishing diplomatic relations with Sudan.

Signs agreement upgrading existing diplomatic relations with Zambia.

10 May 1994

The Canadian Government announced the extension of a General Preferential Tariff (GPT) to South Africa, making it easier for South Africa to export to Canada.

The Australian Government announced that it would give an extra 8 million Australian Dollars in aid to South Africa over the next three years to help provide the basic needs and infrastructure for the underprivileged majority that had been "grossly disadvantaged" by apartheid.

The European Union, South Africa's greatest trading partner, said it planned to invest about US$ 210 million in the country in 1994 alone.

11 May 1994

Signs agreement concerning the establishment of diplomatic relations with Cuba.

President Nelson Mandela announces his cabinet.

Signs agreement establishing diplomatic relations with Burkina Faso.

19 May 1994

Signs bilateral agreement establishing diplomatic relations with Benin.

20 May 1994

South Africa:Signs agreement establishing diplomatic relations with Kuwait.

20 May 1994

South Africa was represented, for the first time, officially at a meeting of the Southern African Development Community (SADC) when mining ministers gathered in Lesotho on 20 May for their annual meeting.

22 May 1994

Dr Zacli de Beer of the Democratic Party is replaced as leader of the party by Tony Leon, MP for Houghton.

23 May 1994

South Africa becomes fifty third member of the OAU.

23 May 1994

South Africa was formally accepted as the 53rd member of the OAU.

South African Cabinet decided to apply for membership in the Commonwealth.

24 May 1994

Cyril Ramaphosa, Secretary-General of the ANC, elected chairman of the Constituent Assembly which is to write a new constitution for the country within two years.

Opening the first session of the first non-racial parliament, President Nelson Mandela adopts a conservative reform policy.

24 May 1994

President Nelson Mandela, in his State of the Nation Address to Parliament, announced that South Africa would subscribe to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and acceded to human rights conventions of the United Nations.

24 May 1994

President Nelson Mandela, in his State of the Nation Address to Parliament, announced that South Africa would subscribe to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and acceded to human rights conventions of the United Nations.

25 May 1994

South Africa:Signs agreement establishing diplomatic relations with Mongolia.

25 May 1994

The Security Council adopted a resolution lifting its 1977 Arms Embargo and other restrictive measures against South Africa, thus removing the remaining United Nations sanctions against South Africa. [Resolution 919(1994)]

25 May 1994

The United Nations Security Council adopted a resolution lifting its 1977 Arms Embargo and other restrictive measures against South Africa, thus removing the remaining United Nations sanctions against South Africa.

Justice Richard Goldstone called for the establishment of a "truth commission" on apartheid atrocities because "victims would not be able to forgive without openness". He said it was essential to expose the past as part of the healing process.

South African flag raised at the headquarters of the OAU in Addis Ababa.

The United Nations Security Council decided to terminate the arms embargo against South Africa. [Resolution 919(1994)]

26 May 1994

South Africa:Signs agreement upgrading existing diplomatic relations with Egypt.

26 May 1994

President Nelson Mandela said that in order to promote national unity he was willing to bring into government those who remain outside. In a meeting with PAC leader Mr. Clarence Makwetu, President Mandela asked Mr. Makwetu to present him with a list of PAC members and indicate in which government structures they would wish them involved. Mr. Makwetu said the PAC had asked that 6,000 members of the Azanian Peoples Liberation Army (APLA) be incorporated in the National Defence Force and that the figure could reach 10,000. Mr. Mandela also met with the leader of the DP, Mr. Tony Leon.

27 May 1994

South Africa:Signs agreement establishing diplomatic relations with Angola.

27 May 1994

South Africa's Minister for Trade Mr. Trevor Manuel, disclosed that South Africa had been formally invited to join the SADC.

29 May 1994

South Africa:Signs agreement establishing diplomatic relations with Saudi Arabia.

31 May 1994

South Africa joins the Non-Aligned Movement.

Signs agreement establishing diplomatic relations with Iceland.

31 May 1994

The Secretary-General of the Commonwealth, Chief Emeka Anyaouku told a press conference at the Commonwealth Headquarters in London, that effective 1 June 1994, South Africa would resume its membership of the Commonwealth.

South Africa joined the Non-Aligned Movement as a full member.

June 1994

The South African Communist Party (SACP) suspends Natal Midlands leader Harry Gwala for six months for verbally abusing SACP members.

1 June 1994

South Africa rejoins the Commonwealth.

South Africa and Syria establish diplomatic relations at ambassadorial level.

6 June 1994

South Africa:Signs protocol with the government of France concerning the use of the Satellite Application Centre at Hartebeeshoek.

6 June - 10 June 1994

Mission of the Special Committee against Apartheid to South Africa.

1994

14 June 1994

At a meeting between President Nelson Mandela and Chairman of the Palestine Liberation Organization Yasser Arafat, the two leaders agree to the opening of a Palestinian embassy in South Africa with Arafat's advisor on African affairs, Salman al-Hirfi, as ambassador.

14 June 1994

Special Committee against Apartheid adopted its final report to the General Assembly and the Security Council.

16 June 1994

The Secretary-General issued his final report on the question of South Africa.

22 June 1994

South Africa:Signs agreement upgrading existing diplomatic relations with Botswana.

23 June 1994

The National Party announces its thirty four member shadow cabinet.

23 June 1994

The General Assembly approved the credentials of the South African delegation, and removed the item on apartheid from its agenda.

24 June 1994

South Africa:Signs joint communiqué establishing diplomatic relations with Uganda.

27 June 1994

The Security Council noted with great satisfaction the establishment of a united, non-racial and democratic Government of South Africa and removed the question of South Africa from its agenda.

30 June 1994

The Minister of Correctional Services, Dr. Sipho Mzimela, announces in parliament that Dimitrio Tsafendas, assassin of Prime Minister Dr. Hendrik Verwoerd (1966), is to be released from prison to a mental asylum.

July 1994

National Intelligence Service restructures its 'de-bugging team' to include ANC experts after allegations that homes and offices of cabinet ministers and President Mandela were being bugged.

South African National Defence Force (SANDF) releases a document outlining how defence spending cuts have adversely affected the military capability of the force. Major restructuring of the force's personnel with Ronnie Kasrils, appointed Deputy Defence Minister and MK chief of staff Siphiwe Nyanda SANDF first black chief of staff. Seven former MK members are appointed generals.

6 July 1994

Finance Minister Derek Keys resigns and former banker, Chris Liebenberg takes his place.

11 July 1994

South Africa:Signs agreement with the Commonwealth Development Corporation.

14 July 1994

Defence Minister J. Modise issues a statement that South Africa is to end the special relationship with Israel. Modise compares Israel's Palestine policy with the apartheid years in South Africa, collaboration between the two countries on nuclear weapons states that South Africa is to assess every contract with Israel.

16 July 1994

The IFP releases its new constitution at its annual general conference held in Ulundi.

IFP political director, Ziba Jiyane, appointed secretary-general of the party at its annual general conference in Ulundi.

18 July 1994

South Africa:Signs agreement with Namibia with a view to regulating certain taxation matters in Walvis Bay.

Signs agreement upgrading diplomatic relations with Tanzania.

20 July 1994

South Africa:Signs agreement concerning the establishment of a Joint Permanent Commission for Co-operation with the government of Mozambique.

President Nelson Mandela pays his first state visit to a foreign country (Mozambique) as President of South Africa.

26 July 1994

The Department of Defence is allocated some Rl0.5 billion, more than 8.7 per cent of the budget.

27 July 1994

South Africa:Signs joint communiqué on the establishment of diplomatic relations with the Republic of the Maldives.

28 July 1994

South Africa:Signs joint communiqué on the establishment of diplomatic relations with the Commonwealth of the Bahamas.

Signs joint communiqué on the establishment of diplomatic relations with the Kingdom of Nepal.

August 1994

Anglican Archbishop, Desmond Tutu, criticizes government for selling arms to Rwanda and the Sudan and for approving salary increases for parliamentarians.

1 August 1994

Deputy President F.W. de Klerk issues a statement that he does not intend to leave the Government of National Unity.

3 August 1994

Convention Abolishing the Requirement of Legalisation for Foreign Public Documents.

4 August 1994

Radio Maputo reports that according to South Africa's Security Minister, Sidney Mufamadi, Mozambique, Swaziland and South Africa have signed an initial police cooperation accord to bring arms smuggling under control.

12 August 1994

South Africa:Signs memorandum of understanding with the government of Malaysia concluding agreements that enhance trade and investment.

Signs joint commmunique concerning the establishment of diplomatic relations with the government of Indonesia.

16 August 1994

Zimbabwe's President Robert Mugabe addresses the South African Parliament.

18 August 1994

President Nelson Mandela makes a major policy speech in Parliament to mark his first 100 days as president.

South Africa:Signs agreement with the government of Zimbabwe relating to the promotion of co-operation in the field of administration of justice.

19 August 1994

South Africa:Signs memorandum of understanding with the government of Zimbabwe.

22 August 1994

South Africa:Signs trade agreement with the government of India.

29 August 1994

South Africa:Signs treaty of the Southern African Development Community.

September 1994

Seventy-eight murderers granted clemency or indemnity for alleged political crimes. Amongst them is A.B. Nofomela, former police officer at the Vlakplaas Unit (granted élemency); Major-General Eddy Webb(indemnity) - former chief of the disbanded Civil Cooperation Bureau.

Deputy President F.W. de Klerk is appointed chairman of the cabinet committee which will oversee a revamped security and intelligence service. President Nelson Mandela is to take personal charge of the intelligence service.

7 September 1994

State of Emergency is lifted in KwaZulu-Natal.

Signs joint communiqué establishing diplomatic relations with the Laos People's Democratic Republic.

9 September 1994

Disgruntled former ANC guerrillas march to Pretoria demanding equal rights and pay in the new South African army. President Mandela persuades them to return to barracks.

South Africa:Signs joint communiqué establishing diplomatic relations with the government of Jamaica.

South Africa:Signs bilateral agreement establishing diplomatic relations with Afghanistan.

10 September 1994

South Africa:Signs bilateral agreement establishing diplomatic relations with Bangladesh.

13 September 1994

South Africa:Signs protocol on consultations between the Department of Foreign Affairs of South Africa and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation.

14 September 1994

South Africa:Signs memorandum of understanding concerning development co-operation with the government of Switzerland.

15 September 1994

South Africa:Signs joint communiqué on the establishment of diplomatic relations with the Republic of Nicaragua.

16 September 1994

South Africa:Signs agreement establishing diplomatic relations with Sri Lanka.

17 September 1994

The Labour Party decides to disband after twenty-nine years in existence.

20 September 1994

King Goodwill Zwelethini and the Zulu Royal Family severs all ties with Chief Buthelezi. This followed a stoning by lnkatha Freedom Party youth during a tneeting between the King, Buthulezi and President Mandela at the king's Enyokeni Palace.

Great Britain's Prime Minister John Major pays an official state visit to South Africa and addresses Parliament.

South Africa:Signs memorandum on bilateral developoment cooperation with Great Britain.

South Africa:Signs memorandum of understanding with Great Britain concerning the provision of personnel of the UK Armed Forces and the UK Ministry of Defence to advise on the integration of the defence and other armed forces of South Africa.

Signs agreement with Great Britain regarding the promotion and protection of investments.

Signs letter of intent: science, technology and engineering co-operation with the United Kingdom.

21 September 1994

Government releases its White Paper on the Reconstruction and Development Programme (RDP).

22 September 1994

South Africa:Signs joint communiqué on the establishment of diplomatic relations with the Republic of Ecuador.

October 1994

President Mandela pays an official state visit to the United States of America. An American aid plan to South Africa is unveiled during their visit.

Tony Leon is appointed national leader of the Democratic Party.

The Black Consciousness Movement of Azania (BCMA) merges with the Azanian People's Organization (AZAPO). BCMA chairman M. Mangena is elected president of AZAPO at its eleventh national congress.

3 October 1994

South Africa:Signs agreement with the government of the US on missile-related export/import restrictions.

Signs agreement with the UN Development Programme on Standard Basic Assistance plus exchange of notes.

4 October 1994

South Africa:Signs joint communiqué establishing diplomatic relations with the Republic of Costa Rica.

7 October 1994

South Africa:Signs joint communiqué establishing diplomatic relations with the Independent State of Papua New Guinea.

10 October 1994

South Africa:Signs cooperation agreement with the European Union.

12 October 1994

Exchange of notes establishing diplomatic relations with Guinea-Bissau.

20 October 1994

President Mandela warns disgruntled former Umkhonto we Sizwe combatants, who took leave without permission while being integrated into the new South African army, that they have to adhere to military discipline or face the consequences.

21 October 1994

South Africa:Signs agreement on the establishment of diplomatic relations with the Republic of Chad.

26 October 1994

Escom intends spending R250 million over five years electrifying 2500 schools and clinics nationwide.

The SA Chamber of Business states that it is committed to the RDP, but concerned about its authoritarian tone'.

26 October - 28 October 1994

International Donors' Conference on Human Resources Development at Cape Town, organised by the UN and Commonwealth. Fifty major international donors attended.

Pledges of aid to South Africa total 10 billion rand.

31 October 1994

Professor Sibusiso Bhengu, Education Minister, said that Government would cut funding for white schools as part of a plan to achieve equity in 4-5 years.

November 1994

Courts-martial of 4,084 former MK cadres who had been AWOL from the Wallmannstal military base during November were due to begin.

4 November 1994

South Africa:Signs declaration of intent with Flanders.

Signs agreement with the government of France on co-operation in the fields of education, sport, culture, science and technology.

Signs joint communiqué on the establishment of diplomatic relations with the Republic of Guyana.

5 November 1994

Influential Afrikaner churchman, Professor Johan Heyns, is murdered.

7 November 1994

Over 2000 Umkhonto we Sizwe soldiers of the ANC's armed wing are dismissed from the SANDF for failing to report for duty.

Signs joint communiqué on the establishment of diplomatic relations with the Sovereign Democratic Republic of Fiji.

8 November 1994

Parliament adopted Restitution of Land Act by 212 to 26, with IFP and Freedom Front opposing it. South Africans forcibly removed from land since 1913 can lodge claims for return of land. A Commission on the Restitution of Land Rights would settle claims by mediation or negotiation.

10 November 1994

South Africa:Signs air services agreement with the government of Ireland.

10 November 1994

The Justice Select Committee approved the Human Rights Commission Bill.

17 November 1994

The Restitution of Land Rights Bill is passed by President Mandela and signed into law.

22 November 1994

South Africa:Signs agreement with the government of Switzerland concerning support to the Reconstruction and Development Programme (RDP).

24 November 1994

South Africa:Signs agreement with the Nederlandse Financierings Maatschappij voor Ontwikkelingslanden N .V.

28 November 1994

South Africa:Signs memorandum of understanding on South African Swedish development cooperation.

December 1994

Minister for General Seriices, Chris Fismer, is to serve as a Minister Without Portfolio.

South Africa re-admitted to UNESCO. It was forced out of the organization in 1956 because of its policy of apartheid.

Visit to India by Aziz Pahad, Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs. The two countries initialled two agreements which were signed by Mandela in January 1995. India offered assistance to RDP by way of Indian expertise in low cost housing, small scale industries, land reforms, rural water schemes and rural employment programmes. It also offered to train diplomats, police and civil servants. It also offered to share its experience in constitution-building process. (Leader, December 2, 1994)

2 December 1994

South Africa:Signs Marrakesh Agreement establishing the World Trade Organization.

3 December 1994

The Afrikaner Volksfront transforms itself into an umbrella body for thirty organizations striving for Afrikaner self-determination in a sovereign state,according to its leader Dr. Ferdi Hartzenberg.

17 December 1994

The ANC holds its forty-ninth National Conference in Bloemfonteiii. Its strategy and tactics document: From Resistance to Reconstruction and Development, is to guide the organization over the next three years.

25 December 1994

South Africa:Signs agreement establishing diplomatic relatons with Mauritania.

This resource is hosted by the Nelson Mandela Centre of Memory, but was compiled and authored by Padraig O’Malley. Return to the Nelson Mandela Centre of Memory site.