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This resource is hosted by the Nelson Mandela Centre of Memory, but was compiled and authored by Padraig O’Malley. It is the product of almost two decades of research and includes analyses, chronologies, historical documents, and interviews from the apartheid and post-apartheid eras.

1993

Oliver Tambo dies in April after serving the ANC his entire adult life

Constitutional agreements are reached.

Restoration and Extension of South African Citizenship Act No 196:

Restored and extended South African citizenship to citizens of the TBVC states who would still have been citizens of South Africa but for the South African Citizenship Act No 44 of 1949.

Commenced: 1 January 1994

Repealed by s 26 of the South African Citizenship Act No 88 of 1995.

Constitution of the Republic of South Africa Act No 200:

Commenced: 27 April 1994, except ss 248, 249: 28 January 1994; ss 6, 40, 42, 127, 132, 143(1), Sch 2: 9 March 1994.

IN FORCE: CONSTITUTIONAL LAW.

Regulation of Gatherings Act No 205:

Repealed ss 46(1) & (2), 47-9, 51, 53, 57 & 62 of the 1982 Internal Security Act. Section 46 measures were related to certain gatherings. Section 62 dealt with actions causing and/or encouraging feelings of hostility between different population groups.

Only Commenced: 15 November 1996

IN FORCE: CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE.

Abolition of Restrictions on Free Political Activity Act No 206:

Repealed:

Ø     section 29 of the 1927 Black Administration Act;

Ø     the whole of the 1968 Prohibition of Foreign Financing of Political Parties Act (Prohibition of Political Interference Act);

Ø     the whole of the 1974 Affected Organisations Act ;

Ø     the whole of the 1976 Parliamentary Internal Security Commission Act;

Ø     sections 29, 58-61 & 71 of the 1982 Internal Security Act;

Ø     the whole of the 1989 Disclosure of Foreign Funding Act.

Commenced: 28 January 1994, except s 7: 29 April 1994

IN FORCE: CONSTITUTIONAL LAW.

January 1993

Bilateral meetings are held between the government and both the Inkatha Freedom Party and the ANC. These meetings aim to lay a foundation for negotiation between various interested parties by the end of 1993 and how power is to be shared between black and white.

5 January 1993

South Africa:Signs air service agreement with the Republic of Malaysia.

5 January 1993

The Swedish Government announced that it would give financial aid totalling about 110 million Rand to the ANC and other organisations in South Africa, which are involved in religious, educational, cultural, and human rights fields. This aid, that had already been given over a number of years, would be phased out when ANC and others started regular elections campaign.

8 January 1993

A press report said the ANC had released a CIA memorandum approved for release under the US Freedom of Information Act, which stated that South Africa detonated its first nuclear bomb with the assistance of Israeli scientists - off the Cape Atlantic coast in 1979. The Atomic Energy Corporation of South Africa, which was said to have developed the project, denied any involvement in development of nuclear weapons or any collaboration with Israel on nuclear projects. A separate report cites a former senior Israeli intelligence officer who stated that the CIA report was untrue and that "the test was of an Israeli weapon with South African specialist observers present".

14 January 1993

Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling and Use of Chemical Weapons and on their Destruction (1993).

29 January 1993

At the opening of Parliament, President F.W. de Klerk warns that South Africa will be plunged into a Yugoslav style civil war if democratic negotiations fail. Multi-party constitutional talks will resume in March.

Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (1979).

Convention on the Rights of the Child (1989).

2 February 1993

Local Government Transition Act No 209:

Provided for revised interim measures to promote the restructuring of local government and facilitate the establishment of Provincial Committees for local government of the provinces.

Commenced: 2 February 1994

IN FORCE: LOCAL GOVERNMENT.

4 February 1993

KaNgwane: Deeds Registry Amendment Act No 4:

Commenced: 4 February 1994

KaNgwane: Births and Deaths Registration Act No 5:

Commenced: 4 February 1994

11 February 1993

South africa:Signs agreement with Namibia regarding the movement of animals, animal products, parasites and infectious and contaminated things between the two countries.

Signs agreement with Namibia regarding standards of livestock breeding and the importation of breeding animals, semen, ova or eggs in Southern Africa.

12 February 1993

Exchange of notes with Namibia concerning formal school and technical college instructional programmes and the performance by the South African Certification Council of functions in the Republic of Namibia.

16 February 1993

The ANC expressed deep concern about latest revelations that the SA Defence Force had a budget of R. 4.38 billion for its secret Special Defence Account during the last financial year. The ANC stated that massive expenditure on covert projects together with recent revelations that, despite repeated promises, Battalions 31 and 32 had not yet been disbanded, cast doubt on the good faith and sincerity with which the SAG is negotiating.

17 February 1993

In a first-phase report, the Commonwealth Observer Mission to South Africa (COMSA) concluded that this country was "one of the world's most violent" based on its homicide rate. COMSA, a 15-member team, which consisted of police, military, legal and political experts further, concluded that South Africa's best hope of containing the violence was to move speedily toward democratic elections and a durable resolution of the country's political crisis.

19 February 1993

South Africa:Signs agreement with Hungary on co-operation in the areas of culture, education, science and related fields.

Joint statement on bilateral relations with Hungary.

Signs agreement with Hungary concerning visa exemption for private passport holders.

19 February 1993

The ANC foreign affairs department hosted an international solidarity conference in Johannesburg from 19 to 21 February, to mobilise international support and help raise funds for its election campaign.

20 February 1993

President F.W. de Klerk reshuffles his cabinet. This comes into effect on 1 April 1993.

March 1993

Corruption scandals rock the country. General Bantu Holomisa, head of Transkei, releases government documents alleging state coven operations against the ANC and other groups during the l980s.

Several members of House of Delegates joined National Party.

1 March - 10 March 1993

A delegation of the Special Committee against Apartheid visited South Africa. The mission, which established contact and held broad-based consultations with high-ranking representatives of all the major parties in the political process, was led by the Committee Chairman, Prof. Ibrahim Gambari (Nigeria).

1 March 1993

A delegation of the Special Committee against Apartheid began its 10-day visit to South Africa. The mission, which established contact and held broad-based consultations with high-ranking representatives of all the major parties in the current political process, was led by the Committee Chairman, Prof. Ibrahim Gambari (Nigeria).

5 March - 6 March 1993

A multi-party planning negotiations conference puts constitutional negotiations firmly on track by deciding to establish a new forum before 5 April.

5 March 1993

Delegations from 26 parties and organisations held a two-day multiparty planning conference ending a 10-month deadlock. In a resolution adopted by all the parties, except the Conservative Party which abstained, they agreed to start new multiparty negotiations not later than 5 April. The only major political parties not present were the Azanian People's Organisation (AZPO) and the Afrikaner Weerstandsbeweging (AWB), who have refused to participate in multi-party talks.

7 March 1993

The SADF's Battalion 31, composed primarily of the Bushmen battalion who fought in the war in Namibia and had lately been deployed in South African townships, was disbanded at a public ceremony in the Cape province. The 1,000 soldiers would be transferred to other units in the northern Cape and would help patrol the border to Namibia.

22 March 1993

Joint communiqué concerning the establishment of diplomatic relations with Congo.

24 March 1993

President F.W. de Klerk, in an address to a special joint session of Parliament, reveals details of South Africa's past nuclear programme.

24 March 1993

In a speech to Parliament, President F. W. de Klerk disclosed that the South African Government had been engaged in a 15-year clandestine nuclear weapons programme leading to the production of six crude atomic bombs and had been at work on a seventh when it decided to dismantle its nuclear arsenal in 1989. The programme had begun in 1974 because of the Government's sense of isolation and fear of communism in the region. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) welcomed the disclosure and declared that it intended to inspect the sites involved and review records.

24 March 1993

In a speech to Parliament, President F. W. de Klerk disclosed that the SAG had been engaged in a 15-year clandestine nuclear weapons programme leading to the production of six crude atomic bombs and had been at work on a seventh when the SAG decided to dismantle its nuclear arsenal in 1989. The programme had begun in 1974 because of the Government's sense of isolation and fear of communism in the region. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) welcomed the disclosure and declared that it intended to inspect the sites involved and review records.

April 1993

Oliver Tambo dies in after serving the ANC his entire adult life

1 April 1993

A one-day constitutional talk takes place when twenty-six political parties meet.

1 April 1993

Representatives from 26 South African political parties and organisations resumed multiparty negotiations marking the start of serious deliberations on the transition since the collapse of CODESA.

The National Coordinating Committee for the Repatriation of South African Exiles (NCCR) was dissolved due to fraud and corruption amounting to substantial amounts of money. South African Council of Churches Secretary-General Dr. Frank Chikane said the UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) would take over the reception of exiles in South Africa. He added that a criminal investigation and a commission of inquiry had been instituted to examine the disappearance of the money.

1 April 1993

Representatives from 26 South African political parties and organisations resumed multiparty negotiations marking the start of serious deliberations on the transition since the collapse of CODESA.

Multi-party Negotiations had a broader representation than CODESA.

The National Coordinating Committee for the Repatriation of South African Exiles (NCCR) was dissolved due to fraud and corruption amounting to substantial amounts of money. South African Council of Churches Secretary-General Dr. Frank Chikane said the UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) would take over the reception of exiles in South Africa. He added that a criminal investigation in a commission of inquiry had been instituted to examine the disappearance of the money.

10 April 1993

South African Communist Party General Secretary and member of the National Executive Committee of the ANC, Chris Hani is shot dead outside his home. J.J. Walluz, a white South African of Polish origin, is arrested.

10 April 1993

Chris Hani, South African Communist Party (SACP) Secretary- General and popular ANC leader, was gunned down in front of his home in Boksburg by a white assassin.

13 April 1993

A Swedish Government official said the ANC will lose $14.5 million a year in Swedish aid as soon as it starts campaigning in South African elections. Sweden is the largest single contributor to the ANC.

22 April 1993

Conservative Party leader, Dr. Andries Treurnicht, dies.

People's Action Front (Volksaksiefront-RAF) formed. Its membership comprises right wing militant organizations.

24 April 1993

ANC Chairman, Oliver R. Tambo, dies.

24 April 1993

Oliver Tambo, ANC national chairman, died at Johannesburg Milpark Hospital after he suffered a severe stroke.

26 April 1993

Delegates from twenty-six groups meet to resume constitutional negotiations.

May 1993

Nelson Mandela tours various European countries.

The Afrikaner Volksfront is officially founded in Pretoria. It is to articulate the interest of right-wing groups and has the support of twenty-one organizations, such as the Conservative Party and Afrikaner Volksunie.

Clive Derby-Lewis, a former Conservative Party MP and a member of a presidential advisory council, is formally charged with the murder of Chris Hani. His wife Gaye. has already been charged, together with J. Walluz.

Former South African military and police commanders meet to form a 'Committee of Generals' to resist Pretoria's handover to majority black rule.

4 May 1993

At their annual meeting in Sweden, Nordic development ministers decided to continue support to the ANC through forthcoming elections and the periods of transition to democracy.

7 May 1993

Twenty-three of the twenty-six parties involved in the Multi-Party Talks at the World Trade Centre, adopt a Declaration of Intent on the setting of an election date for a transitional government.

13 May 1993

The South African Government granted diplomatic immunity and privileges to about 100 UN, Commonwealth, European Community and OAU observers through a proclamation in the Government Gazette.

13 May 1993

The SAG has granted diplomatic immunity and privileges to about 100 UN, Commonwealth, European Community and OAU observers through a proclamation in the Government Gazette. The privileges granted are similar to those enjoyed by foreign diplomats. South Africa is not a signatory to the UN convention on diplomatic immunity.

24 May 1993

World Bank Vice President, Edward Jaycox, announced that the Bank had $1 billion worth of development projects in the pipeline for South Africa. The projects, which are aimed to improve health, housing and education for South Africa's poor Blacks, would be implemented once a non-racial transitional government was in place.

24 May 1993

World Bank Vice President, Mr. Edward Jaycox, announced that the Bank has $1 billion worth of development projects in the pipeline for South Africa. The projects, which are aimed to improve health, housing and education for South Africa's poor Blacks, will be implemented once a non-racial transitional government is in place.

25 May 1993

In an interview with the Financial Times (London), President F.W. de Klerk insists that power sharing between the countries' main political parties should be constitutionally entrenched in any constitution adopted after the 1994 elections.

June 1993

The election date for South Africa's first democratic election is set for 27 April 1994, at the Multi-Party Talks held in Kempton Park.

Nelson Mandela and lnkatha Freedom Party leader Buthelezi meet and pledge to work together. They intend holding joint rallies in war torn areas of conflict.

The Pan African Congress agrees in principle to halt hostilities.

3 June 1993

South Africa and Swaziland sign agreements concerning the secondment of judges, officials and the training of personnel.

4 June 1993

South Africa signs the Convention on Biological Diversity (1992).

15 June 1993

The Concerned South African Group (COSAG) storm out of Multi-Party Talks held at Kempton Park.

17 June 1993

The government and the ANC make concessions, allowing COSAG to return to the talks.

The President's Council closes after an existence of just over twelve years.

26 June 1993

Afrikaner Weerstandsbeweging members attack the World Trade Centre where the Multi-Party Talks are being held.

July 1993

Key points of the interim constitution are outlined.

A constitutional compromise is agreed on at Multi-Party Talks. The negotiators will decide on regional administrative structures for the country and on binding constitutional principles, the constitution itself will be drawn up by an elected constitution-making body.

2 July 1993

The Plenary of the Multi-party Negotiating Process adopted by consensus 27 constitutional principles which, along with a Bill of Rights, would be included in both the interim constitution and the final constitution to be adopted by an elected constituent assembly.

8 July 1993

Exchange of notes with Sudan regarding the establishment of a trade representative office of the Sudan in Pretoria.

20 July 1993

Exchange of notes with India concerning the establishment of a Cultural 1 Centre by the Republic of India in South Africa and a Liaison Office by South Africa in India.

28 July 1993

Exchange of notes with Peru on the establishment of diplomatic relations.

3 August 1993

Signs agreement with Namibia regarding the provision of technical and administrative personnel by the government of South Africa to the government of Namibia.

10 August 1993

The second draft interim constitution is unveiled.

12 August 1993

Signs agreement with Paraguay on the partial waiver of visa requirements for holders of ordinary passports.

16 August 1993

South Africa relinquishes sovereignty over Walvis Bay which now falls under the jurisdiction of Namibia.

Signs bilateral air transport agreement with the Czech Republic.

27 August 1993

South Africa:Signs bilateral air services agreement with Bulgaria.

31 August 1993

Signs bilateral air transport agreement with Hungary.

September 1993

An outline of the purpose and function of the Transitional Executive Council is announced.

Parliament meets to approve four new laws. Parliament votes 211-36 in favour of the Transitional Executive Council Bill which will oversee the transition to democracy. Independent electoral and media commission bills are also passed. Parliament is to meet in November to approve a new constitution.

3 September 1993

Signs bilateral air transport agreement

3 September 1993

Ciskei National Security Decree No 19:

Provided for indefinite detention without trial.

Commenced: 3 September 1993

Sections 14-17 repealed by the State of Emergency Act No 86 of 1995 [SA].

9 September 1993

Signs agreement with Namibia regarding co-operation in the fields of culture, education and the sciences.

13 September 1993

South Africa:Signs agreement with the Russian Federation on scientific and technological cooperation.

Signs agreement with Bahrain on the establishment of diplomatic relations.

14 September 1993

South Africa:Signs bilateral monetary agreement with the government of Namibia.

23 September 1993

South African Parliament passed a bill establishing the Transitional Executive Council, whose main purpose is to ensure free and fair elections.

24 September 1993

Addressing the United Nations, Nelson Mandela, calls for a lifting of all existing economic sanctions against South Africa.

Exchange of notes with Swaziland to amend the extradition agreement of the 4th - 5th September 1968.

24 September 1993

Mr. Mandela, in an address to the Special Committee against Apartheid, called on the international community to lift all economic sanctions against South Africa.

24 September 1993

Mr. Mandela, in an address to the United Nations, appealed to the international community for the lifting of all economic sanctions against South Africa.

1 October 1993

Exchange of notes with Swaziland on the establishment of diplomatic relations.

5 October 1993

Exchange of notes with Pakistan on the establishment of bilateral relations.

7 October 1993

The Freedom Alliance is formed. It seeks to gain concession on federalism from the ANC and to displace the National Party.

8 October 1993

Signs bilateral air transport agreement with France.

8 October 1993

The General Assembly requested States to terminate prohibition or restriction on economic relations with South Africa immediately, and to terminate the oil embargo against South Africa when the Transitional Executive Council in South Africa became operational. [Resolution 48/1].

8 October 1993

General Assembly requested States to terminate prohibition or restriction on economic relations with South Africa immediately, and to terminate the oil embargo against South Africa when the Transitional Executive Council in South Africa becomes operational. [Resolution 48/1].

15 October 1993

President F.W. de Klerk and Nelson Mandela are jointly awarded the Nobel Peace Prize.

Chris Hanis assassin, Clive Derby-Lewis and Janusz Walluz are sentenced to death. Clive Derby-Lewis' wife, Gaye, is acquitted.

Multilateral agreement between the governments of South Africa and Mozambique and the UNHCR for the voluntary repatriation of Mozambican refugees from South Africa.

Interim constitution is approved by nineteen of the twenty-one parties participating in the Multi-Party Talks.

20 October 1993

South Africa:Signs agreement on co-operation with Romania.

22 October 1993

South Africa:Signs agreement with the Russian Federation on trade and economic co-operation.

5 November 1993

Protocol on cooperation between the Department of Foreign Affairs of South Africa and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Georgia.

8 November 1993

Convention between the governments of South Africa and France for the Avoidance of Double Taxation and the Prevention of Fiscal Evasion with respect to Taxes on Income.

10 November 1993

South Africa:Signs agreement with Poland on the avoidance of double taxation with respect to taxes on income.

11 November 1993

South Africa:Signs bilateral air transport agreement with Rwanda.

12 November 1993

South Africa:Signs agreement with Romania for the avoidance of double taxation and the prevention of fiscal evasion with respect to taxes on income and capital gains.

18 November 1993

Leaders of 20 political parties at the Multi-party Negotiating Process endorsed an interim constitution and an electoral bill. They also reached a package of agreements for the transition.

22 November 1993

South Africa:Signs protocol with India on the establishment of consular and diplomatic relations

28 November 1993

The Afrikaner Broederbond adopts a new constitution, which will allow women and all race groups as members, as long as they all speak Afrikaans. It will in future be known as the Afrikanerbond.

30 November 1993

South Africa:Signs investment incentive agreement with the United States.

December 1993

Brigadier Oupa Gqozo. head of the Ciskei government, is found not guilty of murdering Charles Sebe.

December 1993

United Nations Secretary-General appointed Mr. Lakhdar Brahimi as his Special Representative for South Africa, to coordinate international observers.

2 December 1993

Multi-Party negotiators agree to the reincorporation of the TBVC states (Bophuthatswana, Ciskei, Transkei and Venda).

3 December 1993

South Africa:Signs joint communiqué with Venezuela on the establishment of full diplomatic relations.

3 December 1993

Application in Venda of Certain South African Laws Relating to Transition to Democracy Proclamation No 26:

Recognised certain South African Legislation as enforceable in Venda.

Commenced: 3 December 1993

6 December 1993

Transitional Executive Council (TEC) began its work.

At its first session, the TEC adopted a resolution of the Multi-party Negotiating Council requesting that the United Nations, the Commonwealth, the European Community, the Organisation of African Unity and individual governments provide a sufficient number of international observers to monitor the electoral process. The TEC also appealed to the United Nations to coordinate all international observers and to ensure that their deployment was effectively coordinated through close cooperation with the Independent Electoral Commission.

6 December 1993

Transitional Executive Council (TEC) began its work.

At its first session, the TEC adopted a resolution of the Multi-party Negotiating Council requesting that the United Nations, the Commonwealth, the European Community, the Organisation of African Unity and individual governments provide a sufficient number of international observers to monitor the electoral process. The TEC also appealed to the United Nations to coordinate all international observers and to ensure that their deployment is effectively coordinated through close cooperation with the independent electoral commission.

7 December 1993

The Transitional Executive Council has its first meeting in Cape Town.

7 December 1993

Application in Transkei of Certain South African Laws Relating to Transitional Democracy, Decree No 13:

Gave recognition to the democratic processes in South Africa.

Commenced: 7 December 1993

8 December 1993

Winnie Mandela is elected President of the ANC Women's League.

9 December 1993

Exchange of notes with Thailand on the establishment of diplomatic relations.

9 December 1993

The UN Electoral Assistance Unit sent a "Needs Assessment Team" to South Africa.

The President of the General Assembly announced the repeal of the oil embargo against South Africa in view of the installation of the TEC.

9 December 1993

The UN Electoral Assistance Unit sent a "Needs Assessment Team" which arrived in South Africa in early December.

United Nations repealed its oil embargo against South Africa in view of the installation of the TEC.

10 December 1993

South Africa:Signs protocol with Cyprus on the establishment of diplomatic relations

14 December 1993

South Africa:Signs agreement with the UN concerning the legal status, privileges and immunities of the United Nations Observer Mission and its personnel in South Africa.

Signs agreement with the Commission of the European Union establishing the privileges and immunities of the Commission in South Africa.

15 December 1993

South Africa:Signs agreement with Namibia relating to the administration of the judicial system after the incorporation/reintegration of Walvis Bay into Namibia.

15 December 1993

South African Parliament voted to restore citizenship to residents of so-called independent states of Transkei, Bophuthatswana, Venda and Ciskei, estimated at about 10 million.

16 December 1993

The Secretary-General appointed Lakhdar Brahimi (Algeria) as his Special Representative for South Africa.

20 December 1993

The General Assembly terminated the mandate of the Intergovernmental Group to Monitor the Supply and Shipping of Oil and Petroleum Products.

20 December 1993

The General Assembly terminated the mandate of the Intergovernmental Group to Monitor the Supply and Shipping of Oil and Petroleum Products.

22 December 1993

South Africa:Signs joint communiqué establishing diplomatic relations with Vietnam.

This resource is hosted by the Nelson Mandela Centre of Memory, but was compiled and authored by Padraig O’Malley. Return to the Nelson Mandela Centre of Memory site.