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This resource is hosted by the Nelson Mandela Centre of Memory, but was compiled and authored by Padraig O’Malley. It is the product of almost two decades of research and includes analyses, chronologies, historical documents, and interviews from the apartheid and post-apartheid eras.

1828. Ordinance No 49

Under the provisions of this ordinance, "prospective black immigrants were to be granted passes for the sole purpose of seeking work. All employment agreements for more than a month were to be registered as contracts, and no employer was allowed to coerce a worker into entering his employ" (Peires 1989: 486). Thus "a system of passes and short-term labour contracts" (Elphick & Malherbe 1989: 47) was adopted for the so-called 'Native Foreigners' (see also Crais 1992: 194).

This resource is hosted by the Nelson Mandela Centre of Memory, but was compiled and authored by Padraig O’Malley. Return to the Nelson Mandela Centre of Memory site.