About this site

This resource is hosted by the Nelson Mandela Centre of Memory, but was compiled and authored by Padraig O’Malley. It is the product of almost two decades of research and includes analyses, chronologies, historical documents, and interviews from the apartheid and post-apartheid eras.

1988

The ANC executive's attitude to racialism, tribalism and sectarianism was made clear in the more specific constitutional guidelines it drafted for a multiparty democracy in South Africa.

Fietas, Johannesburg: 867 people are 'reclassified'. The classification of non-white South Africans adhered to the following criteria: 'Coolie' people of Indian, Asian and Middle Eastern descent, 'Kaffir' African people, 'Coloured' racially mixed South Africans.

The SPA and other extra-parliamentary groups condemn the Group Areas Amendment Bill. The Bill does not become law.

Gazankulu: Control of Access to Public Premises and Vehicles Act No 5:

Commenced: 20 January 1989

Gazankulu: Removal of Restrictions on Economic Activities Act No 15:

Commenced: 30 June 1989

KaNgwane: Police Act No 4:

Commenced: 27 January 1989

Control of Access to Public Premises and Vehicles Act No 5:

Commenced: 15 February 1989

KaNgwane: Local Authorities Act No 9:

Commenced: 17 March 1989

KwaNdebele: Criminal Procedure Amendment Act No 8:

Commenced: 5 January 1989

KwaNdebele: Mines and Works Amendment Act No 19:

Commenced: 28 July 1989

QwaQwa: Labour Regulations Act No 13:

Commenced: 13 June 1989

QwaQwa: Local Authorities Act No 18:

Commenced: 2 October 1989

Commission of Inquiry into alleged misappropriation of funds of the Lebowa Government Service Mandate: To inquire into, report on and make recommendations on-

a)the possible misappropriation of funds of the Lebowa Government Service by -

i)the financing of the erection of a house on the farm Majebaskraal and ii)the granting of a loan to Kgosi L.C. Mothiba;

b) the methods employed and malpractices committed in connection with any irregularities or advantage accorded anyone, or any misappropriation the Commission may find;

c)steps to end such practices, and action to be taken against those involved.

Date of Report: 18 October 1988.

Chair: DEKKER, L.W.

Ref: RP 45-89; S291/141 (Bilingual)

National Education Crisis Committee (NECC) is restricted.

January 1988

Fierce fighting erupts between Angolan and South African forces for control of the strategic town of Cuito Cuanavale in Angola.

6 January 1988

General Bantu Holomisa, who ousted Stella Sigcau in a coup appoints himself as the Transkei's military and government chief.

12 January 1988

Signs a medical co-operation treaty with the government of the Republic of China, providing advanced training for medical and nursing personnel.

17 January 1988

Percy Qoboza, well-known anti-apartheid journalist and editor of The World newspaper, dies.

31 January 1988

Allan Hendrickse, leader of the Labour Party, replaces Carter Ebrahim as Minister of Education and Culture in the House of Representatives.

February 1988

President P.W. Botha opens Parliament and ignores the country's domestic crisis in his opening address.

10 February 1988

Bophuthatswana troops, led by Rocky Malebane-Metsing; fail to overthrow President Lucas Mangope.

10 February 1988

South Africa sent troops to Bophuthatswana to reinstate Lucas Mangope who was ousted by local defence force members on charge of corruption.

22 February 1988

Seventeen organisations effectively banned.

Two days later, 18 people were served with restriction orders.

24 February 1988

Seventeen anti-apartheid organizations are banned, amongst them the Azanian People's Organization and COSATU.

24 February 1988

The State President amended the emergency regulations to allow the Minister of Law and Order to restrict the activities of organisations or people. Orders prohibiting organisations from performing any activities whatsoever could be gazetted (RRS 1987/88: 587).

27 February 1988

Members of the Afrikaner Resistance Movement (AWB) march to Pretoria and call for a Volkstaat for the Afrikaner people.

28 February 1988

South African commandos raid Gaborone, in search of ANC members.

29 February 1988

Reverend Desmond Tutu and others are arrested as they present a petition to Parliament.

8 March 1988

Britain and the United States vetoed a draft resolution in the United Nations Security Council, following the banning of organisations in South Africa, for selective mandatory sanctions (based largely on measures adopted by the EEC).

8 March 1988

Britain and the United States vetoed a draft resolution in the United Nations Security Council, following the banning of organisations in South Africa, for selective mandatory sanctions (based largely on measures adopted by the EEC).

11 March 1988

The Cabinet is reshuffled.

13 March 1988

Church services are held countrywide to warn the government to desist from its confrontational road.

15 March 1988

Internal Security Amendment Act No 2:

Amended the 1979 Internal Security Act (RRS 1988/89: 58).

Commenced: 15 March 1988

17 March 1988

The 'Sharpeville Six' are granted stay of til 18 April. 17 Mar. 1988 Dennis Worrall, former Ambassador to Britain, establishes the Dennis Worrall, former Ambassador to Britain, establishes the Independent Party.

29 March 1988

Signs Protocol I, 11 and Ill to the treaty on the Lesotho Highlands members.

Water Project (Royalty Manual).

April 1988

President Patrick Mphephu of Venda dies.

Alan Paton, founder member of the Liberal Party, dies.

1 April 1988

National Intelligence Act No 31: Created state security bodies.

Commenced: 1 April 1989

3 April 1988

The International Convention against Apartheid in Sports entered into force.

3 April 1988

The International Convention against Apartheid in Sports entered into force.

7 April 1988

Albie Sachs, an exiled ANC member, is critically injured in a bomb explosion in Maputo. South African agents are blamed.

7 April 1988

A prominent white South African lawyer and ANC member, Albie Sachs, was seriously wounded by a car bomb in Maputo. The ANC and Mozambique blamed South Africa for the attack, with the ANC charging that Mr. Sachs was the latest victim of South African "death squads". At least six ANC members have been killed in countries outside South Africa so far this year. South Africa has denied responsibility for the attack on Mr. Sachs.

11 April 1988

Signs visa agreement with the government of the Republic of Paraguay.

15 April 1988

Black Communities Development Amendment Act No 42:

Amended the 1984 Black Communities Amendment Act and made further provisions for the development areas and townships. Also regulated the rights of holders of mineral rights and mining titles where townships were established on the surface of the land in which these rights were held.

Commenced: 15 April 1988

Repealed by s 72 of the Abolition of Racially Based Land Measures Act No 108 of 1991.

19 April 1988

General Jannie Geldenhuys, Chief of the South African Defence Force (SADF) reveals details of South African military operations, code named Modular and Hooper, directed against SWAPO forces in Angola.

21 April 1988

President P.W. Botha outlines reform plans involving a form of race federation and draft legislation providing for new regional assemblies for blacks living outside the existing 'homelands'. Black leaders, such as Dr. Ntatho Motlana, state that such reforms will not attract legitimate black leaders.

May 1988

Alleged South African spy, Olivia Forsyth, seeks refuge in the British Embassy in Angola and claims that she was imprisoned for twenty-two months by ANC guerrillas.

4 May 1988

Representatives of South Africa, United States, Angola and Cuba, meet in London in search of a solution to the Angolan war and independence for Namibia.

4 May 1988

Angola, Cuba, South Africa and the US held talks on 3-4 May in London on a possible settlement to the conflict in Angola and independence for Namibia. It was the first time that the four countries had met together on the question. After the talks, the parties issued a communiqué stating that they had made progress on the issues, and the US, which had acted as mediator, said that they would meet again "in a matter of weeks".

6 May 1988

An ILO tripartite conference on action against apartheid, held in Harare, Zimbabwe from 3-6 May, updated a declaration and a plan of action to help end apartheid and bring independence to Namibia that included sanctions and assistance to the front-line and neighbouring States. The conference was attended by representatives of governments, employers and workers appointed by the ILO's governing body, by similar tripartite delegations from the frontline and other southern African states, and by other governments, international organisations such as the UN and the OAU, and national liberation movements.

10 May 1988

An International Commission of Jurists report alleges the widespread use of force and torture by security forces on anti-apartheid opponents.

New Nation and South newspapers are banned and twenty-six English- language newspaper editors hand petitions to government, protesting against these curbs on the press.

11 May 1988

Four white guerrillas, known as the Broederstroom Four, are arrested and an arms cache is discovered.

Visa agreement signed with Paraguay on 11 April 1988 enters into force.

24 May 1988

South Africa:Signs treaty of extradition with the Republic of China.

26 May 1988

South Africa and Mozambique agree to revive the Nkomati Accord.

27 May 1988

Anti-apartheid Afrikaners led by Frederik van Zyl Slabbert, IDASA director, meet with the ANC in Frankfurt, to discuss a post-apartheid South Africa.

31 May 1988

More than 200 South African religious leaders representing the Christian, Moslem, Jewish and Hindu faiths, decided at the end of a two-day meeting to embark on a new programme of non-violent action to end apartheid, beginning with support for the "national peaceful protest" called for by COSATU from 6 through 8 June. Protest actions will continue with a campaign to secure the release of political prisoners lasting from 12 June to 18 July, the 70th birthday of Nelson Mandela. They also appointed a national committee to elaborate the rest of the programme, which would be a "standing for truth" campaign.

8 June 1988

More than one million black South African workers, following a call by South Africa's two biggest trade unions, the Congress of South African Trade Unions (COSATU) and the National Council of Trade Unions (NACTU), held a nation-wide stay-away from 6 through 8 June to protest apartheid, the state of emergency including the February banning of 18 anti-apartheid groups from all political activity, and the pending Labour Relations Amendment Bill that would further restrict trade unions. The stay-away was the most successful in recent years, resulting in employers and trade union leaders agreeing to discuss the labour bill. It also demonstrated that the black trade unions could still mobilise mass protest despite all the restrictions, and showed what they said was their future agenda, to use the threat of blacks withholding their labour and purchasing power to force change on the regime.

10 June 1988

The State of Emergency renewed.

10 June 1988

State of emergency reproclaimed.

11 June 1988

The British Anti-Apartheid Movement (BAAM) held an 11-hour rock concert at Wembley Stadium in London to pay tribute to Nelson Mandela on his 70th birthday on 18 July.

16 June 1988

More than a million South African blacks stayed away from work to mark the 12th anniversary of the Soweto student uprising.

20 June 1988

The South African government presents a promotion of Constitutional Development Bill which proposes an advisory and consultative council, designed to give blacks a voice in government.

21 June 1988

The International Olympic Committee (IOC) for the first time joined with the highest-ranking sports leaders in Africa to issue a declaration denouncing apartheid and urging all international sports organisations to cut their remaining ties to South Africa. By specifically making this request of the international federations that govern Olympic sports, the IOC intensified the pressure it has tried to exert on them.

25 June 1988

Angolan, Cuban, South African and United States officials meet in Cairo, in search of independence for Namibia in tandem with a withdrawal of Cuban troops from Angola.

29 June 1988

Tertiary Education Act No 66:

Repealed the 1959 Extension of University Education Act and others.

Commenced: 29 June 1988

IN FORCE: EDUCATION.

30 June 1988

Zimbabwe foils a South African commando attempt to rescue five alleged South African agents awaiting trial for bomb attacks against the ANC in Zimbabwe.

July 1988

The ANC compiles a set of constitutional proposals for post-apartheid South Africa.

1 July 1988

The government tables three bills cracking down on illegal residents, but allowing legal recognition of some racially mixed residential areas. Those are the draft Group Areas Amendment Bill, the Free Settlement Areas Bill and the Local Government Affairs in Free Settlement Areas Bill.

7 July 1988

Five prominent anti-apartheid activists from Cape Town were released after being detained for up to two years under the emergency, but three of them were served with restriction orders limiting their movements and activities and barring them from speaking to the press. The five were Trevor Manuel, Ebrahim Rasool, Mountrain Qumbela and Hilda Ndude, all officials of the United Democratic Front (UDF) in the Western Cape region, and Mzonke Jacobs, president of the Cape Youth Congress. Those served with restriction orders were Messieurs. Manuel, Rasool, and Jacobs.

8 July 1988

The government introduces the Extension of Political Participation Bill, empowering the government to divide the country into a number of regions and calls elections to Legislative Council for each region through which Non-Homeland blacks can articulate their political aspirations. The ANC and the Inkatha Freedom Party express their opposition to these reforms.

12 July 1988

The 'Sharpeville Six' sentenced to hang on 19 July for the killing of a black local councillor, receive an indefinite stay of execution to pursue a possible appeal. This announcement was made hours after British Premier, Thatcher, made a plea of clemency on behalf of the six to President P.W. Botha.

14 July 1988

At present, South Africa does not attend the general conferences, which refuse to accept its delegation's credentials, but it takes part in the IAEA's technical nuclear work.

18 July 1988

The pro-government Afrikaans newspaper, Die Beeld, in an editorial coinciding with Nelson Mandela's 70th birthday, urges the government to release him.

18 July 1988

The birthday of Mr. Mandela inspired renewed calls throughout the world for his release.

Angola, Cuba, and South Africa, after talks in New York from 11-13 July under US mediation, announced that they had reached tentative agreement on a document containing principles for a settlement in southwestern Africa.

20 July 1988

A fourteen-point agreement is signed between South Africa, Cuba, Angola and the United States for a peaceful settlement for Namibia and Angola.

August 1988

The Indian and Coloured Houses of Parliament, the Progressive Federal Party and the Independence Movement, refuse to debate the draft Group Areas Amendments Bill, the Free Settlement Areas Bill and the Local Government Areas Bill.

3 August 1988

The Foreign Ministers of eight Commonwealth countries ended a two-day meeting in Toronto by endorsing international efforts to strengthen sanctions against South Africa. They thereby decided to press for an international ban on purchases of South African coal, intensify efforts to extend the general Commonwealth ban on new loans to South Africa to as many countries as possible, request financial institutions in their own countries not to increase trade financing to South Africa, and promote the application of other measures regarding loans to South Africa. They also decided to call on all governments to study the possibility of widening the existing bans on agricultural products from South Africa, forbid technology transfer designed to enable South Africa to circumvent existing sanctions, carry out stricter customs inspection, investigate sanctions violations more thoroughly, and impose heavier penalties on those violating sanctions. They also agreed to take a series of measures to try to counteract South African censorship and propaganda. The eight Commonwealth countries that participated in the meeting were Australia, Canada, Guyana, India, Nigeria, Tanzania, Zambia and Zimbabwe, which comprise a committee formed at last October's Commonwealth summit to intensify the campaign against apartheid.

5 August 1988

Cohn Eghin of the PFP decides not to stand for re-election at the Congress, but will remain a party and parliamentary member.

Dr Zach de Beer succeeds Cohn Eghin as leader of the PFP.

7 August 1988

South Africa's second largest labour federation, the National Council of Trade Unions (NACTU), held its annual congress over the 5-7 August weekend in Johannesburg. About 200 delegates attended the meeting, which re-elected James Mndaweni as NACTU president and Piroshaw Camay as general-secretary.

8 August 1988

A joint declaration released on talks held in Geneva by Angola, Cuba, South Africa and the United States announcing a formal cessation of hostilities in the Namibian border conflict.

14 August 1988

Nelson Mandela is admitted to the Tygerberg hospital, suffering from a lung ailment.

18 August 1988

At the National Party Annual Congress in Durban, President P.W. Botha rules out any possibility of a black majority government in South Africa.

19 August 1988

National Security Amendment Act No 5:

Provided for the arrest of any person who directly or indirectly rendered any assistance to persons suspected of being 'terrorists', or failed to report them (or have them reported) to the police.

Commenced: 19 August 1988

31 August 1988

The South African Council of Churches (SACC) headquarters, Khotso House, is devastated by a bomb blast. Responsibility for the blast is claimed by a right-wing group.

12 September 1988

President P.W. Botha visits Mozambique and in talks with President Joaquim Chissano, pledges not to support RENAMO, to defend and rebuild the Cahora Bassa power lines and to increase economic cooperation between the two countries. He also visits Malawi and Zaire.

13 September 1988

Three leading anti-apartheid activists, Mohammed Valhi Moasa, Murphy Moroke, and Vusi Khanyile, escape from detention and seek refuge in the American Consulate in Johannesburg.

26 September 1988

Indian and Coloured members walk out of Parliament in protest against the draft Group Areas Amendment Bill, the Free Settlement of Areas Bill, and the Local Government Affairs in Free Settlement Areas Bill.

October 1988

The government shelves the three Group Areas Amendment Bills that led to the Indian and Coloured Houses walking out of Parliament and refers the Free Settlement Areas Bill to the President's Council.

12 October 1988

Khanya House, the headquarters of the Southern African Catholic Bishops Conference, is set alight.

Three Zimbabwean intelligence officers are on trial in Harare for attempting to car bomb a house in Bulawayo, occupied by ANC refugees. The bomb exploded prematurely.

15 October 1988

President P.W. Botha meets Ivory Coast's President Felix Houphouet-Boigny.

16 October 1988

ANC members and South African rugby officials meet in Harare to normalize the sport and get South Africa back into international sport.

19 October 1988

Mohammed Valli Moosa, Murphy Morobe and Vusi Khanyile end their 37-day sit-in at the American Consulate-General in Johannesburg.

19 October 1988

South African anti-apartheid leaders Mohammed Valli Moosa and Murphy Morobe, senior officials of the United Democratic Front (UDF), and Vusi Khanyile, chairman of the National Education Crisis Committee, left the US consulate in Johannesburg in which they had been staying since 13 September after escaping from detention. The three men, who had previously pledged not to leave until other detainees were freed and repressive laws repealed, announced that they had successfully publicized the status of 1,300 persons presently in detention under the emergency, and were responding to the suggestion of Nelson Mandela and others to return to the community and continue their anti-apartheid work. However, they said that they still felt some apprehension in doing so, despite the regime's having given assurances that they would not be re-detained or restricted.

26 October 1988

All race municipal elections are held to elect segregated local authorities.

26 October 1988

The regime held nation-wide multiracial segregated municipal elections, the first time that it held elections on the same day for all racial population groups, even separately. The black majority followed the call of anti-apartheid forces and largely boycotted the elections, with only an estimated 14 per cent of "eligible" black voters participating, some 435,000 of 3.1 million out of a black population of 28 million.

The UN General Assembly the same day overwhelmingly rejected the elections as a manoeuvre to further entrench white minority rule and apartheid.

26 October 1988

The regime held nation-wide multiracial segregated municipal elections, the first time that it held elections on the same day for all racial population groups, even separately. Although the National Party triumphed over the ultra-right Conservative Party in most of the Country's major cities and in three of its four provinces, the Conservative Party gained possession of a majority of the municipalities in Transvaal Province, the country's most populated area, and made inroads elsewhere. Meanwhile, the black majority followed the call of anti-apartheid forces and largely boycotted the elections, with only an estimated 14 per cent of "eligible" black voters participating, some 435,000 of 3.1 million out of a black population of 28 million (compared with about 21 per cent the last time municipal elections were held, in 1983).

In addition, the UN General Assembly the same day overwhelmingly rejected the elections as a manoeuvre to further entrench white minority rule and apartheid, that would increase conflict in southern Africa.

November 1988

Justice Michael Corbett appointed South Africa's new Chief Justice.

Harry Gwala and Zephania Mothopeng released.

1 November 1988

The government suspends the anti-apartheid alternative newspaper, The Weekly Mail, until 28 November.

13 November 1988

South Africa's economy has been feeling the impact of some strong economic sanctions and other anti-apartheid measures begun three years ago by many of the country's major trading partners and their business entities. While such sanctions have not yet resulted in a deep recession, they have forced the regime to pay a high price for apartheid, and over the next few years the economy's survival may come at the cost of sluggish growth or even recession, rising inflation, high unemployment and more social unrest.

South Africa's inability to regain access to foreign capital markets is at the heart of the problem. Domestic capital is also increasingly hard to find, as disinvestment and interest payments on the country's debt have spurred capital flight, a net outflow of almost $10 billion since 1985. In addition, the South African Reserve Bank recently announced that the gold component of foreign reserves had plunged by $258 million to $1.2 billion, the lowest level in 15 months. Trade sanctions have worsened this balance-of- payments problem, with the US reporting that US sanctions and those of most of South Africa's major industrialised trading partners have caused the regime's exports to drop by $469 million in the first eight months of 1987 from the same period in 1986. If gold's weakening price is added to this the foreign currency problem is even worse. Meanwhile, 1988 growth is estimated at 2.7 per cent, which may be too low to keep black unemployment from rising above its already high level of about 40 per cent or more.

15 November 1988

Barend Hendrik Strydom, a former right-wing member, massacres six blacks in a Pretoria street. He appears in court on six charges of murder and of attempted murder.

18 November 1988

Three UDF officials, Patrick Lekota, Popo Molefe and Moses Chikane, as well as South African Council of Churches member, Tom Manthatha, are convicted of treason in the Delmas Trial.

The three Zimbabwean intelligence officers standing on a trial for a bomb attack on an ANC house in Bulawayo, are sentenced to death

18 November 1988

United Democratic Front (UDF) officials Patrick Lekota, the organisation's publicity secretary, Popo Molefe, its national secretary, and Moses Chikane, its Transvaal Province secretary, as well as the Reverend Thomas Manthatha, another activist, were convicted of treason with intent to overthrow the regime. Seven other defendants were convicted of terrorism, which like treason, carries a maximum penalty of death, and eight were acquitted. That brought to 11 each the number of convictions and acquittals among the 22 persons accused in the more than three-year-long trial, one of the longest political trials in South Africa history.

23 November 1988

The Sharpeville Six are reprieved by State President, P.W. Botha.

24 November 1988

South African President P. W. Botha on 23 November granted reprieves to the "Sharpeville Six", the six black South Africans who were condemned to death for being part of a crowd that killed the deputy mayor of Sharpeville township in September 1984.

26 November 1988

Harry Gwala of the ANC and Zephania Mothopeng of the PAC are released from prison.

28 November 1988

The regime on 26 November unconditionally freed two black leaders, Zephania Mothopeng, the president of the Pan-Africanist Congress of Azania (PAC), and Harry Gwala, a trade unionist and ANC member, on medical/humanitarian grounds".

The International Confederation of Free Trade Unions (ICFTU), in a report to be published on 30 November in Brussels, stated that the boycott of coal from South Africa imposed by certain countries such as the US and Denmark has been partly responsible for the 10 per cent decrease in the regime's coal exports in 1986.

December 1988

Delmas trialist Patrick Lekota is sentenced to twelve years imprisonment, and Popo Molefe, to ten years. Six others, amongst the eleven convicted, are given suspended sentences for terrorism.

Johnstone Makatini, director of foreign relations for the African National Congress since 1977, dies in Lusaka.

Nelson Mandela is transferred to the Victor Verster Prison.

2 December 1988

Zwelakhe Sisulu, editor of the New Nation newspaper, and six other detainees are released.

7 December 1988

The regime moved ANC leader Nelson Mandela from the private clinic at Cape Town where he had been recovering from tuberculosis since 31 August, to a house on the grounds of a prison farm at Paarl, east of Cape Town.

8 December 1988

Justice Kees van Dijkhorst of the Pretoria Supreme Court sentenced the 11 "Delmas Treason Trialists" he had convicted on 18 November, giving prison terms from 10 to 12 years for treason to United Democratic Front (UDF) officials Patrick Lekota, the organisation's publicity secretary, Popo Molefe, its general secretary, and Moses Chikane, its Transvaal Province Secretary.

9 December 1988

The International Olympic Committee asked the federations that govern world-wide sports to bar from the Olympic Games any athlete who competes in South Africa in the future and to also warn athletes against competing in the Games and then going to South Africa for sport events. Among the more than two dozen federations that govern Olympic sports, several, including track and boxing, already bar from international competition those who compete in South Africa, and some others impose lesser sanctions or handle each case on an individual basis. Only tennis and gymnastics retain formal ties to South Africa, sanctioning events and allowing athletes to compete there at will.

20 December 1988

South African President P.W. Botha fired the government's only non-white Cabinet Minister, Amichand Rajbansi, with effect from 1 January 1989. He also removed him from his positions as head of the Indian House of Parliament, as head of the Indian "mini- cabinet", and as Minister of Housing for Indians.

22 December 1988

Angola, Cuba, and South Africa ended 8 months of negotiations under US mediation for a settlement in south-western Africa by signing a protocol in Brazzaville, the Congo, on 13 December, and a formal treaty at UN headquarters in New York on 22 December. The treaty involved an agreement by the three parties on the overall settlement, including the implementation of the UN plan for the independence of Namibia in the period 1 April 1989 to April 1990, as well as an agreement between Angola and Cuba on the phased withdrawal of the 50,000 Cuban troops from Angola starting from before 1 April 1989 to 1 July 1991. Since the protocol and the treaty called for a UN role to help verify the departure, the UN Security Council met on 20 December and approved a resolution establishing a UN Angola Verification Mission (UNAVEM) for a period of 31 months. With the signing of the final accords, the Security Council was now due to meet again to authorise the carrying out of its resolution 435 (78) regarding the independence of Namibia.

22 December 1988

Explosive, Public Security and Criminal

Procedure Amendment Act No 10:

Controlled public activity and possession of contraband.

Commenced: 22 December 1988

30 December 1988

Establishment of Military Council Act No 1

Established a Military Council and a Council of Ministers to rule the Transkei until civilian rule was restored. Although the Act was published on 5 January 1988, it was deemed to be in effect from 30 December 1987.

Commenced: 30 December 1988

This resource is hosted by the Nelson Mandela Centre of Memory, but was compiled and authored by Padraig O’Malley. Return to the Nelson Mandela Centre of Memory site.