About this site

This resource is hosted by the Nelson Mandela Centre of Memory, but was compiled and authored by Padraig O’Malley. It is the product of almost two decades of research and includes analyses, chronologies, historical documents, and interviews from the apartheid and post-apartheid eras.

1974

The United Nations General Assembly (under the chairpersonship of the Algerian Foreign Minister) refuses to recognise the credentials of the South African delegation, a significant victory for the ANC.

Fietas, Johannesburg: The Oriental Plaza is established, but stands virtually empty until 1976 when unwilling traders are forcibly removed from their shops in Pageview.

QwaQwa proclaimed a self-governing territory.

Prisons Act No 6:

Set out prison services in Transkei.

Commenced: 1 August 1975

Lebowa: Education Act No 6:

Commenced: 24 January 1975

Baleka Kgositsile, active in Black Consciousness Movement and ANC underground.

Mamphela Ramphele charged under Suppression of Communism Act for being in possession of banned literature.

1 January 1974

With effect from this date the New Zealand government terminates all tariff preferences previously granted to South Africa.

4 January 1974

The leader of the United Party in the Transvaal, Harry Swartz, signs a five-point 'declaration of faith' with Chief Gatsha Buthelezi of Kwazulu. Its purpose is to provide a blueprint for government by consent and racial peace in a multi-racial society, stressing opportunity for all, consultation, the federal concept, and a Bill of Rights.

30 January 1974

The United Party controlled Johannesburg City Council announces the dismantling of petty apartheid practices.

February 1974

The report of the one-man Commission of Inquiry into the University of the Western Cape by Justice IT. van Wyk urges that disruption and incitement at all South African universities be made a legally punishable offence.

The assassination of Onkgopotse Tiro (the expelled president of the Turfloop's Student Representative Council-SRC) from the explosion of a parcel bomb, an event that led black students force their institutions to shut down by boycotting lectures.

1 February 1974

Abraham Tiro, a leader of the South African Students' Organization, who after his expulsion from Turfloop University in 1972 had fled the country in September 1973, is killed by a parcel bomb near Gaborone, Botswana.

4 February 1974

The Prime Minister announces the holding of early elections. The National Party bases its election campaign on its record in office over the previous twenty-six years and on the need for a strong government.

8 February 1974

The Prime Minister warns that the government will not hesitate to intervene, should campaigns by City Councils - led by Johannesburg - to eliminate petty apartheid measures cause friction, or disturb the peace.

The Minister of Justice, P.C. Pelser discloses in Parliament that during 1973 a total of sixty-seven people were banned by the government for political reasons. Of these sixteen were prosecuted and eleven convicted for not complying with their restriction orders.

9 February 1974

The Publications and Entertainments Bill placed by the government before the House of Assembly incorporated the recommendations of the Commission of Inquiry chaired by Jimmy Kruger, Deputy Minister of the Interior. The most controversial section abolishes the existing right of appeal from the Publications Control Board decisions to the Supreme Court - regarded by the opposition United Party as a damaging blow to the rule of law.

18 February 1974

The Lebanese government decides to break off diplomatic relations with South Africa.

23 February 1974

The Prime Minister condemns, in the strongest terms, a gift of $450,000 announced by the World Council of Churches (WCC) to Southern African liberation movements.

March 1974

Harri Singh went on a trip to Europe to raise funds for the Black People's Convention (BPC), without any success.

6 March 1974

The British Parliamentary Report on Black Labour Conditions indicate that sixty-three of 141 British companies investigated have been paying African workers below the relevant poverty line. Three main recommendations are made the British government should initiate a new code of practice for British finns operating in South Africa; British companies should pay African workers not less than the minimum effective level and should encourage the lawful development of collective bargaining.

What is officially described as the first meeting of its kind, the Prime Minister holds a one-day conference with the black 'homeland' leaders to discuss mainly economic and urbanization questions.

14 March 1974

Chief Matanzima calls upon the South African government to grant full independence to the Transkei within five years. The Prime Minister states that he is prepared to negotiate.

15 March 1974

The creation of a community of separate and sovereign states is laid down as the official policy of the National Party in its election manifesto. Simultaneously it rejects absolutely a federal system.

Two Bills conferring wide new security powers on the government are passed by Parliament. The Affected Organizations Act is intended to prevent such organizations from receiving financial support from overseas sources to achieve political objectives in South Africa. The Riotous Assemblies Amendment Act empowers the authorities to prohibit any public or private gathering of more than one person, whether lawful or unlawful, if it is thought to pose a threat to law and order. Both Acts are strongly opposed by the United Party and the Progressive Party.

15 March 1974

Riotous Assemblies Amendment Act No 30:

Redefined 'gathering' and removed the reference to 'public'. A gathering could comprise any number of persons.

Commenced: 15 March 1974

Sections 1-8 and 11 repealed by the Internal Security Act No 74 of 1982.

IN FORCE: Sections 9 and 10 (dealing with ss 16-18 of the Riotous Assemblies Act No 17 of 1956): CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE.

15 March 1974

Affected Organisations Act No 31:

Provided for the declaration of Affected Organisations. Such organisations could not solicit foreign funds.

Commenced: 15 March 1974

Repealed by s 7 of the Abolition of Restrictions on Free Political Activity Act No 206 of 1993.

18 March 1974

At the close of nominations for the 1974 elections a total of 334 candidates have been nominated for 171 seats: National Party 137, United Party 110, Herstigte Nasionale Party 46, Progressive Party 23, Democratic Party 7 and others 11.

The Minister of the Interior, Connie Mulder, announces that senior officials of the World Council of Churches (WCC) have been banned from South Africa. Entry will be refused to any member of the Council's Executive or Central Committee.

20 March 1974

Responding to the British Labour government's re-imposition of an embargo on arms sales to South Africa, John Vorster tells Britain that South Africa does not depend on British arms.

Signs agreement with Swaziland on the issue of notes and coin.

25 March 1974

South Africa:Signs amendment with Great Britain to the agreement on civil air services signed on 26 October 1945.

29 March 1974

Chief Minister Cedric Phatudi of Lebowa signs the 'Seshego Declaration' with the United Party Transvaal leader, Harry Schwarz and the United Party M.P. for Durban North aiming at peaceful change, a federal system ľand a stake in society for blacks.

April 1974

The President of Paraguay, A. Stroessner, pays a five-day State visit to South Africa. Paraguay is given a $20m. loan for agricultural development. Agreements are signed on economic cooperation.

2 April 1974

South Africa:Signs multilateral treaty on the extension of the Wheat Trade Convention, 1971.

3 April 1974

South Africa:Signs treaty with Paraguay on cultural exchanges and cooperation in science and technology.

4 April 1974

Following the aircrash death of over seventy miners, President Banda unilaterally suspends labour recruitment to South Africa. The move leads to protracted, but inconclusive negotiations for better conditions for migrant workers.

8 April 1974

The Prime Ministers of Lesotho and South Africa meet to clear up certain misunderstandings and reaffirm their belief and determination that both countries base their relations on the principle of good neighbourliness.

24 April 1974

The general elections result in the return of the National Party for the seventh consecutive time since 1948. While the United Party suffers a setback the Progressive Party increases its representation from one seat to six. The newly created Democratic Party has no success and the Herstigte Nasionale Party meets with resounding defeat.

25 April 1974

The World Council of Churches (WCC) calls for an end to multi-million pound investment in South Africa by international banks, to help bring about the collapse of the economy and the end of apartheid. The report, commissioned by the council, is released simultaneously in London, Geneva, Frankfurt and New York.

26 April 1974

The Minister of Defence, P.W. Botha, announces an expansion programme for the naval base at Simonstown.

29 April 1974

A number of Cabinet changes are announced by the Prime Minister.

30 April 1974

The claims of the government of Lebowa to more than one third of the total area of the Transvaal are set out in a report of the Select Committee of Inquiry into the Consolidation of Lebowa, tabled in the Lebowa Legislative Assembly by the Minister of the Interior, C. Ramusi.

The new government decides that the Senate will be dissolved by the Stale President and replaced by an enlarged Upper House at the end of May.

6 May 1974

The British Lions rugby team leave London to begin a controversial twenty-two match tour of South Africa and Rhodesia, ignoring threats by the Supreme Council for Sport in Africa (SCSA). Kenya, Zambia, Tanzania and Uganda sever all sporting links with Britain.

17 May 1974

After a two-hour discussion, the Transkei and South African governments agree to appoint a committee of experts to prepare the way for Transkei independence. An assurance is given by Chief Kaiser Matanzima that the Transkei will continue as a democratic multi-party system after its independence.

21 May 1974

The British Prime Minister, Harold Wilson, states in the House of Commons that the export license for a Westland Wasp helicopter to South Africa will be revoked.

22 May 1974

The South African Olympic and National Games Association (SAONGA) reports that all South Africa's attempts to secure re-admission to the Olympic Games have failed, despite the tremendous strides made to comply with the demands of the IOC.

Signs an amendment to the agreement on civil uses of atomic energy with the United States.

29 May 1974

After joint talks with Ian Smith of Rhodesia, the Prime Minister B.J. Vorster commits South Africa to co-operative coexistence with, and non-interference in the internal affairs of a black-ruled Mozambique. A reciprocal pledge is forthcoming from FRELIMO's Joachim Chissano on 17 September 1974.

30 May 1974

Following the elections, ten new senators are chosen and appointed by the Prime Minister, on the same day that the electoral colleges elect their forty-four Provincial Senators.

South Africa tells Britain that unless the Wasp helicopter is delivered the Simonstown Agreement on naval cooperation will have to be reviewed.

5 June 1974

The Japanese government announces that South Africans will no longer be granted visas to enter Japan, to take part in sporting, cultural or educational activities. The ban comes into effect on 15 June 1974.

15 June 1974

Minister of Defence P.W. Botha, announces during a press visit to the Caprivi Strip that the Defence Force has taken over protection of the country's northern borders as a full military operation, replacing the police in the area. Zambia protests over this change. It becomes clear that South Africa is recruiting, arming and training blacks for its army anti-terrorists units to repel a possible guerrilla onslaught on its northern border.

20 June 1974

South Africa:Signs amendment to multilateral agreement of 26 July 1967 for the application of safeguards (IAEA/SA/USA).

21 June 1974

The Minister of Finance announces a change in the South African exchange rate practice. Henceforward the Rand is tied strictly to the U.S. dollar.

30 June 1974

Cooperation with Iran in the fields of nuclear energy, petroleum, mining and trade is announced.

July 1974

The leader of the opposition party, Cohn Eghin, together with F. van Zyl Slabbert, undertakes a fact-finding tour of several African countries, including Botswana, Kenya, Nigeria and Zambia.

Removals of thousands of Africans are taking place near Middleburg in the Eastern Transvaal, and more are planned for the Eastern Cape Albany district.

7 July 1974

New Zealand imposes a blanket ban on virtually all visits by sports teams from South Africa.

11 July 1974

Strikes in Durban, common since January 1973, continue as white mechanics and engineers join the ranks of some 400 black and coloured workers.

22 July 1974

The Deputy Chairman of the Coloured Representative Council, JA. Rabie, calls for full citizenship for Coloured people, and urges a separate voters roll to elect sixty Coloured representatives to Parliament and the Provincial Councils.

23 July 1974

Following criticism of the press, particularly the English press, by the Prime Minister, a code of conduct is adopted by the National Press Union which is criticised by newspaper editors and certain academics.

24 July 1974

Dissatisfaction with the Coloured Persons Representative Council (CPRC) climaxes with a motion of no confidence in separate development. This is followed, on 29 July, by a walkout of the Federal Party after its third defeat in three days by the Labour Party, led by Sonny Leon.

30 July 1974

The Cabinet meets to discuss the crisis in the government policy towards the coloured community, following the capture of the Coloured Representative Council (CRC) by the anti-Apartheid Labour Party. The government has prorogued the Council until further notice.

31 July 1974

In a by-election held in Natal the United Party candidate wins a seat against the Democratic Party candidate. The ruling National Party did not contest the seat.

31 July - 1 August 1974

The South African Council of Churches adopts a resolution, at its national conference, that a just war cannot be fought in defence of a basically unjust society.

1 August 1974

Signs treaty with the Federal Republic of Germany relating to the visit of the German nuclear-powered vessel Otto Hahn.

It is officially announced that the police's counter-insurgency potential will be increased by the establishment of a long-service volunteer unit to fight 'terrorists' in Rhodesia.

The government expands its defence potential by enrolling blacks for defence services. This policy has the support of 'homeland' leaders.

12 August 1974

The Commission of Inquiry into Certain Organizations submits its final report on NUSAS to Parliament. It finds that its leaders are traitors, guilty of providing terrorist groups and the like. The Commission reconunends that the application of students to NUSAS should end and that NUSAS should not be allowed to accept funds from overseas.

14 August 1974

A sharp increase in defence expenditure is announced. This follows the White Paper tabled on 10 April 1973, by the Minister of Defence. This demand was necessary for the strengthening of the defence force on the borders of the Caprivi Strip with Angola and Zambia.

19 August 1974

The Prime Minister meets for four hours in Cape Town with a delegation of politicians from the Coloured Representative Council (CRC), led by Sonny Leon. He informs them that the government cannot meet their demands.

26 August 1974

A Defence Bill is passed laying down penalties for any person or organization inciting anyone to avoid military service.

1 September 1974

KwaZulu: Labour Amendment Act No 11:

Commenced: 1 September 1975

3 September 1974

Joint routine exercises are held between the British Royal Navy and the South African Navy, under the Simonstown Agreement, and again from 14 October 1974.

5 September 1974

The Prime Minister again meets Coloured leaders in Cape Town in an attempt to resolve the crisis in the government's Coloured policy.

9 September 1974

The U.K. Department of Trade confirms that all arms sales to South Africa are halted.

10 September 1974

The Minister of Defence states that South Africa will provide bases and communication facilities to the maritime forces of Western nations interested in the defence of the Cape route.

11 September 1974

The government is empowered to set up a Publications Board which would endeavour to present and uphold the Christian view of life.

13 September 1974

The Minister of Justice officially announces that NUSAS has been declared an 'affected organization' under the Affected Organizations Act and will not be allowed to retain any funds obtained from overseas.

16 September 1974

The United States decides to sell helicopters and reconnaissance aircraft to South Africa.

The Minister of Defence announces that South Africa will soon build its own tanks.

19 September 1974

The Prime Minister wishes the new Mozambique government well, but warns that South Africa will have to act in self-defence if Mozambique makes its territory available to guerrilla forces as a base for direct attacks against South Africa.

21 September 1974

Prime Minister Vorster made secret visit to Ivory Coast for talks with President Houphouet-Boigny.

22 September - 23 September 1974

The Prime Minister pays a secret visit to the Ivory Coast in pursuit of his policy of seeking dialogue with black African states.

23 September 1974

The United States government officially advises American companies operating in South Africa to negogiate with (unregistered) African trade unions.

24 September 1974

KwaZulu: Chiefs and Headmen Act No 8:

Commenced: 20 September 1974

25 September 1974

The New Zealand government announces that it terminates all tariff preferences previously granted to South Africa, as from 1 January 1974.

25 September 1974

"Viva Frelimo' Rallies held by the BPC (Black People's Convention) and SASO (South African Students' Organisation) to celebrate the fall of the Portuguese government, followed by Mozambique's rapid advancement to independence, in support of the Frelimo government taking power on various campuses, with Turfloop once more taking the lead. The police subsequently banned and dispersed the rallies by means of bans and detentions.

The beginning of a seventeen-month-long trial of the "SASO (South African Students' Organisation) Nine", who were being charged under the Terrorism Act for encouraging disorder at the time of the Frelimo support rallies. Rather than contributing to the suppression of BCM (Black Consciousness Movement) ideology as the government hoped to achieve, the trial merely served to disseminate that ideology even more widely, by giving the accused a continuous public platform through the press. This furthermore held to the youth once again a model of "rebel courage".

The performance of black drama and music by mushrooming township cultural groups became a significant factor in the dispersal of Black Consciousness philosophy.

26 September 1974

The United Nations General Assembly's Political Committee decides to grant observer status to the ANC and the PAC. The South African delegation is subsequently withdrawn from the Political Committee.

30 September 1974

The United Nations General Assembly asks the Security Council to review the relationship between the United Nations and South Africa in the light of the constant violation by South Africa of the principles of the Charter and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.

30 September 1974

The General Assembly decided - by 98 votes to 23, with 14 abstentions - not to accept the credentials of the representatives of South Africa.

At the same meeting, the Assembly adopted - by 125 votes to 1, with 9 abstentions - a resolution calling upon the Security Council "to review the relationship between the United Nations and South Africa in the light of the constant violation by South Africa of the principles of the Charter and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights." [Resolution 3207 (XXIX)]

30 September 1974

The General Assembly decided - by 98 votes to 23, with 14 abstentions - not to accept the credentials of the representatives of South Africa.

At the same meeting, the Assembly adopted - by 125 votes to 1, with 9 abstentions - a resolution calling upon the Security Council "to review the relationship between the United Nations and South Africa in the light of the constant violation by South Africa of the principles of the Charter and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights." (resolution 3207 (XXIX).

7 October 1974

South Africa:Signs regional agreement on low frequency and medium frequency broadcasting in ITU regions 1 and 3.

8 October 1974

The Minister of Bantu Administration and Development states that, in 1973, 475,387 foreign Africans were working in South Africa. Of these 36,480 were from Botswana, 148,856 from Lesotho. 139,714 from Malawi, 129,198 from Mozambique, 3,249 from Rhodesia, 10,032 from Swaziland and the remainder from other African territories.

9 October 1974

The Publications Act replaces the Publications Control Board with an entirely new censorship machine operative at three different levels. A fundamental change is the specific exclusion of appeal to the courts.

12 October 1974

Fourteen people, including leading members of the South African Students Organization (SASO) and the Black People's Convention (BPC) are arrested and held under the Terrorism Act, following the pro-FRELIMO rally in Durban on 25 September 1974. Their arrest is the signal for widespread unrest at the University of the North, Turfloop.

14 October 1974

The Minister of Sport, Piet Koornhof, announces a relaxation of apartheid rules for sport and declares the government is working towards eliminating racial discrimination in the selection of contestants for international events.

15 October 1974

A Second General Law Amendment Bill is introduced by the Minister of Justice, J.T. Kruger, involving the repeal of the 'Masters and Servants' laws governing the employment of labourers on farms, in mines, and of domestic workers. The Bill is passed late in October with the support of the opposition.

The United Nations Secretary-General accepts the credentials of the South African delegation led by 'Pik Botha and including, for the first time, three black delegates, Chief Kaiser Matanzima (Transkei), Dr. M.B. Naidoo (South African Indian Council), and Dan Ulster (Coloured People's Representative Council.

18 October - 30 October 1974

The Security Council considered the relationship between the United Nations and South Africa, and received a proposal to recommend to the General Assembly the immediate expulsion of South Africa from the United Nations in compliance with Article 6 of the Charter. The proposal received 10 votes in favour, but was not adopted because of the negative votes of three permanent members - France, the United Kingdom and the United States of America.

The Security Council considered the relationship between the United Nations and South Africa, and received a proposal to recommend to the General Assembly the immediate expulsion of South Africa from the United Nations in compliance with Article 6 of the Charter. The proposal received 10 votes in favour, but was not adopted because of the negative votes of three permanent members - France, the United Kingdom and the United States of America.

23 October 1974

The Prime Minister makes a major policy speech in the Senate, promising that South Africa will contribute its share to order, development and technical and monetary aid to African countries, particularly to close neighbours.

24 October 1974

In the United Nations Security Council 'Pik' Botha says that South Africa will do everything in its power to move away from discrimination based on race or colour.

25 October 1974

Cameroon, Kenya, Mauritania and Iraq call for the expulsion of South Africa from the United Nations. The proposition is vetoed by Britain, France and the United States. The vote on South Africa's expulsion constitutes the first on the specific question of expelling a member country and also the first in which there is a triple veto.

30 October 1974

The main report of the Van Wyk de Vries Commission of Inquiry into Universities is tabled. It advances some positive recommendations, while in a minority report, G.R. Bozzoli, Principal of the University of the Witwatersrand, warns that certain chapters represent an attack on the English-language universities.

1 November 1974

A seventh black 'homeland', Qwa-Qwa, becomes self-governing.

Signs multilateral treaty on safety of life at sea.

1 November 1974

QwaQwa proclaimed a self-governing territory.

4 November 1974

The Chamber of Mines secures the Rbodesian government's approval for the recruitment of black labour from Rhodesia.

5 November 1974

In a major policy speech, the Prime Minister talks of peace with black Africa, and of close economic ties in Southern Africa. He asks for six months' grace for South Africa, and requests political commentators to 'give South Africa a chance'.

6 November 1974

At the National Party's Cape Province Congress, four Cabinet Ministers call for changes and the removal of unnecessary irritating legislation.

The South African Indian Council ceases to be totally government-appointed when half of its thirty seats are filled by election.

8 November 1974

The Prime Minister's major proposal for the Coloured people is the creation of a consultative cabinet with equal numbers of white ministers and Council representatives meeting under his chairmanship. This 'new deal' is rejected by leaders of the Coloured community, by the leader of the Labour Party and by the Opposition parties.

12 November 1974

At a request made by the Permanent Representative of Tanzania, representing the African Group of the United Nations, the South African Delegation is refused participation in the Session of the UN General Assembly.

12 November 1974

Asked for an interpretation of the decision not to accept the credentials of the South African delegation, the President of the General Assembly, Abdelaziz Bouteflika (Algeria) said that the consistency with which the Assembly had refused to accept the credentials of the South African delegation was tantamount to saying in explicit terms that the General Assembly refused to allow the South African delegation to participate in its work. The President' ruling was challenged and upheld by a vote of 91 to 22, with 19 abstentions.

12 November 1974

Asked for an interpretation of the decision not to accept the credentials of the South African delegation, the President of the General Assembly, Abdelaziz Bouteflika (Algeria) said that the consistency with which the Assembly had refused to accept the credentials of the South African delegation was tantamount to saying in explicit terms that the General Assembly refused to allow the South African delegation to participate in its work. The President' ruling was challenged and upheld by a vote of 91 to 22, with 19 abstentions.

16 November 1974

Six of the eight 'homeland' leaders meet United Party leaders and issue a statement supporting federation as the solution for South Africa's race problem. All eight leaders question the Prime Minister's offer of independence.

The Prime Minister tells black 'homeland' leaders that one-man-one-vote in a Parliament for whites and blacks will never come about. Black majority rule in the 'homelands' will prevail and the whites will govern South Africa. The six months grace period was not intended 'to turn South Africa upside-down'.

20 November 1974

The Masters and Servants Act and sections of the Bantu Labour Act are repealed. The repealing Act, the Second General Laws Amendment Act, makes it an offence to cause hostility between sections of the population and prohibits the furnishing of information, without ministerial permission, about business matters in response to any order, direction or request emanating outside the Republic.

20 November 1974

Second General Law Amendment Act No 94

(as amended by Acts No 87 of 1977, No 99 of 1978, No 74 of 1982, No 110 of 1983, Nos 84 & 95 of 1986 and No 101 of 1987):

Repealed the Masters and Servants Acts (1856-1910). Section 1 of this Act prohibits any words or acts intended to cause feelings of hostility between different population groups of the Republic. Section 2 prohibits the furnishing of information about business carried on in or outside the Republic to any person outside the Republic without the permission of the Minister of Foreign Affairs.

Commenced: 20 November 1974.

21 November 1974

An agreement is signed in Blantyre by which South Africa undertakes to lend Malawi R19m. to build a railway line between Lilongwe, the capital, and the Zambian border.

27 November 1974

In a by-election at Wonderboom (Pretoria) the National Party candidate retains the seat by 5,745 votes against 1,077 cast for the Herstigte Nasionale Party.

5 December 1974

A comprehensive monetary agreement is signed between South Africa, Lesotho and Swaziland.

7 December 1974

International Monetary Fund announces the termination of South Africa's request of the 1969 arrangements for the sale of South African gold.

13 December 1974

South Africa:Signs an amendment to the trade agreement of 13 March 1967 with Malawi.

16 December 1974

The General Assembly, in resolution 3324 E (XXIX) recommended that "the South African regime should be totally excluded from participation in all international organisations and conferences under the auspices of the United Nations so long as it continues to practice apartheid and fails to abide by United Nations resolutions concerning Namibia and Southern Rhodesia."

17 December 1974

A three-day Black Renaissance Convention ended at St. Peter's Seminary, Hammanskraal. It was sponsored by the Christian Institute, the South African Council of Churches, the Roman Catholic Church, IDAMSA, ASSECA etc. It called for Black Solidarity.

In a declaration, it rejected the policy of separate development and all its institutions and all forms of racism.

22 December 1974

The Minister of Foreign Affairs, H. Muller, defines the government's policy of ending discrimination inside South Africa and of detente in external relations.

This resource is hosted by the Nelson Mandela Centre of Memory, but was compiled and authored by Padraig O’Malley. Return to the Nelson Mandela Centre of Memory site.